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Giambologna (Jean Boulogne), Flemish (active Italy), 1529–1608
probably cast by Antonio Susini, Italian, active 1580–1624
late 16th–early 17th century
Bronze with gilding
Associated with
Italy, Europe
Current Location
On View, Gallery 238
11 1/2 x 4 x 6 in. (29.2 x 10.2 x 15.2 cm)
with base: 17 x 5 x 6 in. (43.2 x 12.7 x 15.2 cm)
Credit Line
Museum Purchase
Public Domain
Object Number
Cautious and alert, the fowler prepares to cage a bird using a small lamp and a stick (originally a racquet) to flush them from their nests. Among one of the best examples of the approximately ten variations of the subject known today, this bronze cast has a meticulously crafted surface, and shows the artist’s great attention to details and sensitive modeling. The Fowler can be seen from multiple viewpoints, offering diverse understandings of the sculpture. This version was probably cast by skilled bronzeworker Antonio Susini. Susini assisted Giambologna, a renowned Flemish artist born in Douai, Flanders, in the 16th century (now Douai, France,) who spent most of his career in Italy.
Eugen Miller von Aichholz, Vienna, Austria [1]

by 1923 - 1925
Camillo Castiglioni, Vienna, Austria [2]

- 1951
Alexander C. de Frey (1882-1951), Lucerne, Switzerland; New York, NY, USA [3]

1951 -
Saint Louis Art Museum, purchased from the Estate of Alexander C. de Frey [4]

[1] According to a sales catalogue, the collection of Eugen Miller von Aichholz was sold, along with his palace, to the collector Camillo Castiglioni [von Falke, Otto. "Die Sammlung C. Castiglioni, Wien." Berlin: Hermann Ball & Paul Graupe, 1930]. Presumably, Castiglioni acquired "Fowler" along with the rest of Miller von Aichholz's collection.

[2] The 1923 catalogue of the Camillo Castiglioni collection includes the "Fowler" sculpture ["Planiscig, Leo. "Collezione Camillo Castiglione: Catalogo dei Bronzi." Vienna: A. Schroll, 1923, cat. no. 82, p. 44]. In 1925, the collection was sold by Frederik Muller & Cie ["Collections Camillo Castiglioni de Vienne: Catalogue des Bronzes Antiques et de la Renaissance," Frederik Muller & Cie, Amsterdam, November 18, 1925, lot no. 82, p. 19].

[3] Alexander C. de Frey is also known as Count Alexander von Frey. In the 1920s de Frey lived in Hungary and began to amass a great art collection. Throughout the 1930s to end of World War II, he lived in Vienna, Paris, and Lucerne. It seems that while he was living in Lucerne in the mid-1940s, he began to use the name A. C. de Frey. In 1948, de Frey and his wife, Erika, moved to the United States where they lived in New York and Vermont. Upon Mr. de Frey's death on February 4, 1951, his wife became the executrix of his will ["European Works of Art and Sculpture," Sotheby's, London, December 18, 1988, p. 48; copy of letter from Erika de Frey dated November 28, 1951, SLAM document files].

[4] Purchased by the Saint Louis Art Museum from the Estate of Alexander C. de Frey [copy of letter from Erika de Frey dated November 28, 1951, SLAM document files]. Minutes of Administrative Board of Control of the City Art Museum, December 12, 1951.
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