January 18, 2021
Dr. and Mrs. Martin Luther King Singing in the Rain during the March from Selma to Montgomery
At the center of this photograph, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. looks out with an expression of unflinching determination. He sings with the rest of the participants in the 1965 civil rights protest in Alabama, known as the Selma march. Photographer Moneta Sleet Jr. purposely portrayed King among the people and highlights him as a leader who walked with the masses. The rain drenches the marchers who continue on, many without any covering. By his side, his wife Coretta Scott King joins in with the singing.
Sleet is one of the most recognized photojournalists of the civil rights movement. Sleet’s career began as a sportswriter for Amsterdam News before he was hired at Our World magazine where he worked for five years. When Our World shut down in 1955, Sleet went on to become a staff photographer for Johnson Publishing, home of Ebony and Jet magazines. His first assignment was to photograph the Montgomery Bus Boycott. During his career, Sleet earned a Pulitzer Prize for the outstanding quality of his work, in addition to a National Urban League award, and the National Association of Black Journalists award.
Today’s Object of the Day is featured in our virtual program: Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Freedom Celebration: Inspired by a Movement
January 17, 2021
New York Harbor
Symbols of modernity—ocean liners, airplanes, and skyscrapers—intermingle with old-fashioned sailboats and bridges in this stylized view of New York Harbor from 1928. Lillian Glaser, a native of Belleville, Illinois, wove this pictorial textile on a handloom, a slow and technically complex process. Glaser taught weaving at Washington University in St. Louis and was a founding member of the city’s Weavers’ Guild. She likely envisioned the design for this wall hanging on a 1925–26 leave of absence to pursue her artistic education in New York.
January 16, 2021
St. Francis Contemplating a Skull
Saint Francis of Assisi was a 13th-century friar and preacher, famous for having had a vision in which he received the wounds of Christ. The artist has reduced his figure to simple geometric solids, their three-dimensionality enhanced by the use of stark lighting. The saint’s downcast gaze and shadowed face remove him from the viewer’s realm, making his contemplation of the skull a compelling model of religious devotion. Francisco de Zurbarán was a master of the single monumental figure, often based on models that he studied from life. Although the painting was originally part of a larger, multi-paneled altarpiece, it works effectively as a single picture.
January 15, 2021
Standing Sâkyamuni Buddha
The serene, introspective gaze of this Buddha is enhanced by the figure’s formal stance and the white, cool character of the marble. Traces of old pigment indicate that this sculpture was originally painted to show the richly embroidered, colorful patchwork silks of a priest’s robe. There are two rare features depicted in this work. The first, just under the left shoulder, is an inverted fan shape that represents the gathering of cloth in a clasp. The second, nestled between the ankles, is a fruit-like motif interpreted as a lotus bud or a wish-granting pearl (cintamani), both symbols of purity (see detail). Based on stylistic analysis and other comparable works, this statue may have been made either during the final years of the Northern Qi dynasty or the early years of the Sui dynasty. This standing statue would have been supported on a lotus pedestal that surmounted a square base, carved from the same marble.
January 14, 2021
This candelabra for 13 candles is often compared to the fanned tail of a peacock when the arms are aligned in this position or to a branching tree when they are rotated. Despite these subtle references to nature, the conical candle sockets and base are ornamented only with lines. They mark a departure from other Jugendstil, or Youth Style, designs that more directly imitate organic forms. Designer Bruno Paul was among the architects, craftsmen, and manufacturers who formed the Vereinigte Werkstätten für Kunst im Handwerk, or the United Workshops for Art in Craft. The United Workshops sought to produce affordable modern design and advance the stature of German art industries.
January 13, 2021
Robert Hay Drummond, D. D. Archbishop of York and Chancellor of the Order of the Garter
In this monumental portrait, Robert Hay Drummond wears regalia indicating both his secular and ecclesiastical offices. His massive blue robe, tied with long silk cords, bears the insignia of the Order of the Knights of the Garter (a prestigious group founded in the 14th century in service to the king) on his right shoulder. Drummond wears the traditional linen collar favored by clergy and rests his left hand on an especially elaborate purse, symbolizing the distribution of alms to the poor, one of his duties as Royal Almoner. The frontal pose and voluminous drapery suggest a powerful individual.
January 12, 2021
Layered spirals—a signature motif for Al Loving—create a dynamic vertical composition, which seems to sprout new forms as it ascends the wall. Since his early career, the artist created sprawling configurations of repeated shapes large enough to take over walls. Loving, along with contemporaries such as Sam Gilliam, was interested in producing art that rejected traditional supports such as wooden stretchers or frames (learn more). For this work, he constructed a Plexiglas backing, which gives the collage a free-floating sculptural presence.
January 11, 2021
Carpet with Hexagonal Compartments
The incredibly thick and lustrous wool pile of this rug is typical of Yürük products. Yürük, the Turkish word for “wanderer,” has been used to identify the nomadic people of Anatolia (modern-day Turkey). Yürük rugs made from local wools are very lightweight for their size. Given the sheen and difference in color saturation when viewed from opposite ends, this rug almost appears to be silk. The design is reminiscent of octagonal ceramic tiles, with interlocking octagonal medallions separated by a twisted-ribbon band in light blue. Connected to this band are rectangular boxes containing smaller hexagonal compartments filled with highly stylized insect forms that may have developed from a floral motif of projecting leaves. Geometric shapes, some with legs, and amulet shapes fill the larger octagonal spaces between the boxes.
January 10, 2021
The Rainbow’s Source
This painting is one of many that John Henry Twachtman painted of Horseneck Falls, the waterfall on his property in Greenwich, Connecticut. Twachtman nearly fills the canvas with the image of the waterfall tumbling into the streambed below. The rough texture of the paint vividly captures the movement and misty spray of the water, and the artist was able to create the impression of a vaporous atmosphere that could at any moment reveal a brilliant rainbow. Twachtman used the Impressionist technique of combining multiple brushstrokes of varying color to produce transient, shimmering light effects. He repeatedly painted this waterfall and other subjects on his property, exploring various light and weather conditions.
January 9, 2021
Renée Sintenis was a prominent sculptor in early 20th century Germany. In this mythological subject, she depicts Daphne changing into a tree. The nymph’s hair turns to leaves while foliage appears around her legs and sprouts from her armpits. Daphne was pursued by the Greek god Apollo and was transformed into a tree in order to escape the god’s unwanted advances. Sintenis affirmed, “I tried to capture the beginning of this magic transformation in plastic form.”
January 8, 2021
This table lamp’s piston-like aluminum base and ribbed fiberglass shade look like spare machine parts. Spurred by a fascination with modern factories, designers and home furnishing manufacturers between World War I and II embraced the pure geometry and honest materiality of industrial forms. Stacked and repeated cylinders and spheres, which supplanted the earlier trend for triangular forms, epitomized American “Machine Age” design.
January 7, 2021
St. Ives Cornwall, Composition
Overlaid planes of bright color evoke the sea, sand, and brilliant light of the coast in Cornwall, England. This landscape was an important retreat for Ben Nicholson throughout his life. The same year in which Nicholson painted St. Ives Cornwall, Composition, he visited the studio of Piet Mondrian, where he was deeply affected by the older artist’s careful arrangement of strict, geometric forms. This work highlights the nature-inspired and lyrical elements which were distinctive to Nicholson’s abstract compositions.
January 6, 2021
Adoration of the Magi
Before a magnificent landscape of hills and cliffs, three opulently dressed Magi present the Christ Child with exotic gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh. The flamboyant kings contrast with the two simple shepherds who strain to observe the scene as they peer on either side of the half column behind the Holy Family. The three different ages and nationalities of the Magi, as well as the distinction between the poor shepherds and wealthy kings, symbolize the universality of Christ’s mission. Following Northern traditions of architectural symbolism, the dilapidated building at right denotes the collapse of a previous religious order. The stone steps on which Mary and her baby sit suggest the foundation of a new one.
January 5, 2021
Headrest in the Form of a Theater
This is a rare porcelain headrest in the form of a theater with a surrounding balustrade. The object is modeled in high relief on all four sides with figural and architectural details (see detail). The shaped top is slanted toward one of the long sides and decorated with a design of interlocking coins within an undulating border. During the Yuan dynasty, drama attained such a high point in the history of Chinese literature and performing arts that theatrical structures inspired the production of ceramic headrests.
January 4, 2021
Energetic gestures of vivid red, yellow, white, and silver seem to fight in a messy brawl against a black background. To achieve this effect, Frank Wimberley incorporated cut pieces from other examples of his work. This technique was utilized by some of the earliest collage artists in the 20th century. Deckled edges, splattered paint, and scratches into existing brush marks (see detail) add further dimension to the varied surface.
January 3, 2021
This sculpture’s sturdy figure, solid stance, and mature face are at odds with the idea of a helpless, innocent child. Made at a time when accurate depictions of age, both old and young, were popular, this sculpture seems somehow supernatural and suggests a mythological figure rather than an anonymous depiction of an infant. Zeus, king of the gods, had two sons, Herakles and Dionysus who were sometimes depicted as babies. The infant, Herakles survived an assassination attempt by gleefully strangling the snakes sent to his bed. Baby Dionysus was fostered as an infant far from the prying eyes of Zeus’s jealous wife, Hera. Without the arms or any characteristic attributes, it is impossible to securely identify who this sculpture represents.
January 2, 2021
Christ and the Sinner
Hear Expert Commentary
Speaker: Melissa Venator
Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Fellow for Modern Art
Saint Louis Art Museum
This is a painting titled Christ and the Sinner, made in 1917 by Max Beckmann. It shows a passage from the Gospel of John from the New Testament of the Christian Bible. In the passage Jesus is asked to determine the fate of a woman accused of adultery. The law called for her to be stoned to death, but Jesus responded, “He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her,” the source of the familiar expression, “let him who is without sin cast the first stone.” It’s interpreted as a lesson in the virtue of forgiveness and a warning against hypocrisy. After all, are any of us so good that we can judge the action of others?
Beckmann often depicted scenes from the Bible, but he wasn’t a particularly religious man. For him, biblical stories represented universal themes, like the idea of forgiveness, easily understood by the average German. And that’s an important point to remember. In the German census of 1910, over 98 percent of Germans identified as Christian, either Protestant or Catholic. They would be familiar enough with Bible stories to identify the subject of this painting from the figures alone, and they would also know its moral lesson.
But while Beckmann refers to the biblical account, he also departs from it. Jesus stands at the center in a white robe, but Beckmann shows him beardless and bald, looking, in fact, very much like Beckmann himself. The woman at his feet is the woman accused of adultery, kneeling in prayer and thanking Jesus for his intercession. The other figures are harder to identify. One may be a soldier, another in tights and a red pointed hat and apron is a complete mystery. And they all make bizarre hand gestures. These are puzzles with no clear answers, which leave us with unresolved curiosity, a response I regularly have to Beckmann’s art.
As we try to understand Christ and the Sinner, its date helps a lot: 1917, the middle of World War I. By then Beckmann’s war was already over. He volunteered as a medical orderly in early 1915 and spent a year in occupied Belgium caring for wounded soldiers. In a letter home, he described how the wounded men reminded him of the sufferings of Jesus, likely the only example of a heavily wounded man he had ever encountered in his life before the war.
Beckmann’s constant exposure to pain and death led to a breakdown and discharge on medical grounds. While recuperating he began to paint large biblical scenes in a new angular and more abstract style, paintings including Christ and the Sinner. For Germans in the midst of war, not just Beckmann, the Bible’s apocalyptic narrative seemed a wholly appropriate metaphor for the large-scale human loss and environmental devastation.
In this unconventional depiction (hear more above), Jesus stops an angry mob from stoning a woman to death. The biblical story’s message of non-violence expresses Max Beckmann’s pacifism after his wartime service. Beckmann volunteered as a medical orderly during the war, but constant exposure to dead and dying soldiers traumatized him. This is one of the first paintings he made after his discharge in 1917. Twenty years later, Christ and the Sinner appeared in the infamous Entartete Kunst (Degenerate Art) show, a propaganda exhibition organized by the Nazi government to indoctrinate Germans against Expressionist and abstract art.
January 1, 2021
Reliquary Guardian Figure (mbulu ngulu)
Kota reliquary guardian figures (mbulu ngulu), such as this one, are unique among African sculptural forms in their combination of wood and hammered metal. It is thought that the figurative form of the mbulu ngulu was intended to reinforce and communicate the reliquary’s intense power. The Kota used reliquary guardian figures to protect and identify the revered bones of family ancestors. The Kota believed that the relics of important men and women retain power after death, providing protection and good fortune to an individual’s descendants. The remains were preserved in containers made of bark or basketry. The mbulu ngulu stood atop this bundle, bound to it at the figure’s lozenge-shaped base.
Throughout this week, Object of the Day will feature a series of African works of art in celebration of Kwanzaa.
December 31, 2020
This puppet is constructed with moveable joints, allowing both the horse and rider to strike a variety of gestures and poses. Puppeteers work from behind a cloth screen to operate the puppets, up to five feet from the ground. Part of a genre known as “the animals come forth” (sogo bò), this puppet was used to entertain children and young adults. Sogo bò is a tradition shared among several cultural groups in the Ségou Region of central Mali. This type of puppetry, which originated prior to 1890, is particularly suited to inventiveness and change, and continues to evolve through new performances into the present day. Secular in character, the performances are owned and enacted by members of the kamalen ton, the young men’s society.
Throughout this week, Object of the Day will feature a series of African works of art in celebration of Kwanzaa.
December 30, 2020
Lavish glass beading on this crown emphasizes the wealth and power of a Yoruba oba (king). Glass beads, imported from eastern Europe and northern Italy via transatlantic trade, became an important signifier of wealth. This crown’s veil concealed the face of the oba; the luxury of bountifully beaded ornamentation further underscored the separation between a semidivine king and his constituency. The crown’s principal conical shape highlights the significance of an oba’s ori inu, the “inner head,” which in Yoruba belief holds one’s character, intellect, destiny, and spiritual essence. The ori inu takes precedent over the ori ode, one’s physical “outer head.”
Throughout this week, Object of the Day will feature a series of African works of art in celebration of Kwanzaa.
December 29, 2020
This chair is a symbol of political power and social hierarchy. The top of the chair back features the heads of five Chokwe chiefs in royal headdresses. Below the chiefs, on the lower back are carved images of three initiates of the young men’s masking society (see detail), an association controlled by the chief. Underneath the initiates, on one side are a pair of musicians who carry and play a wood slit drum. On the opposite rung are two women with tall pestles pounding food in a mortar. The other two rungs feature carvings of scenes from Chokwe life, including a man leading a cow. From the 16th century, Portuguese traders imported European-style joinery chairs and presented them as gifts to their African trading partners. As the chairs were traded into the interior, they became prestige objects and eventually served as prototypes for chairs used by Chokwe chiefs.
December 28, 2020
Crest Mask (ci-wara kun)
This headdress, called ci‑wara kun, primarily represents an antelope, an important animal in Bamana culture. The antelope’s power is a metaphor for the successful farmer who tirelessly tills his fields. Worn on the heads of male dancers, these headdresses are always performed in pairs—one male and one female—to symbolize the fertility of both land and animals. A male mask such as this would have been joined by a female mask and danced together to the sound of drums in order to bring forth the rain, clear the fields, and harvest the crops. Music and entertainment by the masked performers would inspire the young men to work efficiently and in harmony.
December 27, 2020
The warrior-hunter, recognizable by his gun and long-tailed headdress, appears twice on this veranda post, standing atop a ram’s head above, and with his feline prey below (see detail). The sculpture communicated that its owner was a cosmopolitan individual who honored Ogun, the Yoruba god of warriors and chiefs, observed Islamic teachings, and maintained political ties with the British colonial administration. A Muslim teacher below is identifiable by the turban he wears and the Koranic writing board and prayer beads he holds. Above him, carved in relief, is a seated European colonial official, recognizable by his pith helmet, pipe, and book. Thus, leadership, in the forms of warriorhood, education, and politics, represents the values of the owner whose residence this post once adorned.
December 26, 2020
These figures, one male and one female, suggest the Yoruba god Eshu’s ability to bring opposites and complementary entities together. Eshu is known as the messenger between this world and the spiritual realm of the orishas and ancestors. The figure pair also emphasizes the duality inherent in Eshu’s personality. Known as a trickster, Eshu represents unpredictability and uncertainty in the universe. When this object was not set up as a shrine dedicated to the god, a devotee danced with it, activating its dangling bells and shells, at Eshu festivals held in the marketplace. Eshu is also considered the guardian of the markets and crossroads.
December 25, 2020
Madonna and Child Enthroned with Sts. Peter, John the Baptist, Dominic, and Nicholas of Bari
In a lifelike rendering, this large panel portrays a sacra conversazione (holy conversation) where saints surround the Madonna and Child in a unified pictorial space. Saint Peter presents the kneeling Saint Dominic (left) while Saint John the Baptist announces Christ’s ministry, and Saint Nicholas kneels in devotion (right). The three smaller panels, called a predella, depict scenes from the lives of Saints Dominic, John, and Nicholas (see detail). The Pugliese coat of arms adorns the frame, identifying the Florentine family who commissioned the work for its private chapel.
December 24, 2020
Ankh-pa-khered with Osiris
Here, Ankh-pa-khered, a priest, is shown with a statue of the god Osiris. He places his hands on the statue’s shoulders in a gesture that is intimate and protective. Ankh-pa-khered is depicted as a slim man, yet two wrinkles of fat on his chest indicate that he was prosperous enough to eat very well. And his advanced age is shown by lines that frame the corners of his mouth, yet do not detract from his dignified portrayal (see detail and alternate views).
December 23, 2020
This work is populated with layered references to the artist’s life in the Netherlands, where he relocated in 1961 (see detail). Cut and torn ephemera form a textured collage: stamps, receipts, and musical scores with Dutch text, along with a small black-and-white image of windmills and a map of the Netherlands. The primary colors—blue, red, and yellow refer to important Dutch artists active in the early 20th century. The underlying blue and image of a seagull suggest traditional Dutch seascapes.
December 22, 2020
Characterized by their horizontal profile and long pointed tail, helmets known as sallets cover the upper half of the face. They were often supplemented with a bevor, a separate guard that protected the chin and throat. This helmet was beaten from one large sheet of metal, requiring great skill and finesse to hammer the smooth sweeping form. The pristine curve of its surface deflects weapons and, pierced with a vision slit, the sallet exudes a mysterious, mask-like presence. Although a helmet was only one element of a knight’s armor, it was the crowning glory of military garb, and its form, construction, and decoration provide clues to its use, date, and place of manufacture.
December 21, 2020
Flask with Flattened Sides and Design of Fish and Flowers
The flattened sides of this flask are boldly decorated with fish in the sgraffito (scratched) technique. The outlines were incised through the white surface to reveal the darker body below. The narrower sides have stylized floral motifs produced in reverse through removal of the white surface over the body, along with some incised details. The term buncheong is a contraction of bunjang hoecheong sagi. First used in the 1930s by Korea’s earliest art historian Go Yuseop, it means “gray-blue (or gray-green) stoneware with powder.” The “powder” refers to the layer of thin white clay brushed onto the formed vessels before they are decorated with painted, incised, or stamped designs. The pale shade of blue or green comes from iron in the glaze applied prior to firing.
December 20, 2020
The newborn Venus, ancient Roman goddess of love and beauty, rises from the waves on the back of a sea monster. Cupids with butterfly wings clothe her in sea foam and crown her with a wreath. The Swiss artist Arnold Böcklin worked in Germany intermittently throughout his career, spending several years in Munich. His light, frothy brushwork and imaginative depictions of mythology made him one of Germany’s most popular painters. Böcklin’s success inspired younger German artists to paint scenes from ancient Greek and Roman mythology.
December 19, 2020
Cautious and alert, the fowler prepares to cage a bird using a small lamp and a stick (originally a racquet) to flush them from their nests. Among one of the best examples of the approximately ten variations of the subject known today, this bronze cast has a meticulously crafted surface, and shows the artist’s great attention to details and sensitive modeling. This version was probably cast by skilled bronzeworker Antonio Susini. Susini assisted Giambologna, a renowned Flemish artist born in Douai, Flanders, in the 16th century (now Douai, France) who spent most of his career in Italy.
December 18, 2020
Little Briar-Rose, from the Household Tales of the Brothers Grimm
An impenetrable wall of thorns encloses a castle where everyone is asleep except for a prince poised to kiss the sleeping princess (see detail). Eugen Napoleon Neureuther’s print illustrates the Brothers Grimm fairy tale Little Briar-Rose, more familiar to Americans as Sleeping Beauty. The Brothers Grimm recorded their fairy tales, first published in 1812, in an effort to document Germanic folk stories. Neureuther’s print shows the growing popularity of the Brothers Grimm fairy tales. Without political unity, Germans embraced art, literature, and folklore that reflected a common cultural heritage.
December 17, 2020
Hear Expert Commentary
Speaker: Hannah Klemm
Associate Curator of Modern and Contemporary Art
Saint Louis Art Museum
Joseph Beuys holds an almost mythical position in the pantheon of postwar German art. He was an important teacher, political activist, and artist. Beuys believed that art and life were inextricable, that art could change society, and that everyone could be an artist. Beuys was a multimedia and multidimensional artist, never intending his practice to be singular in its interpretation or presentation. In his work Beuys endowed humble, everyday objects and actions with spiritual meaning. He was famously charismatic and created an iconic public persona, combining the performance of self with political action.
Beuys served as professor of monumental sculpture at the Düsseldorf Art Academy from 1961 to 1972. He believed that art should compel conversation, communication, progressive social action, and be open to everyone. Acting on this belief, throughout the 1960s Beuys implemented an open enrollment policy in his class, accepting any student who wished to study with him.
Throughout the 1970s, as part of his performance art practice, Beuys lectured extensively on art and politics—specifically, on the task of creating a genuinely democratic society. He started using blackboards to write on during his lectures. While the blackboards played an important didactic function as a site for information during the lecture, Beuys deliberately saved the blackboards with their writing, often exhibiting them as autonomous works of art almost as soon as they were created.
This work, Urbis II, was a blackboard drawing from a performance Beuys did in Rome in 1972. These public discussions exemplified Beuys’s role as artist, teacher, and activist. On this chalkboard Beuys sketched out the points of this talk. At the center he wrote LIBERTÀ, which is Italian for freedom. Beuys often linked freedom to creativity, art, and expression. The three main headings for this lecture are, from left to right: Freiheit, or freedom; Demokratie, or democracy; and Sozialismus, or socialism. Beuys was an avid supporter of and activist for Democratic Socialism, believing that the state should take care of people’s basic needs. He felt this would allow individuals the freedom to develop innovative ways of thinking and would, in turn, support overall societal well-being.
With the blackboard drawings such as this one, Beuys liberated drawing from associations with private, individual artistic acts. Rather, it became a function and document of a communal action. The blackboard drawings also take on performative meaning—functioning as a lasting document of the relationship between artist, audience, and artwork. It was really social relationships that were Beuys’s primary area of concern, and works like Urbis II allow us to continue to explore and discuss fleeting, collective performative moments long after the lecture is over.
Words and arrows flow across the surface of this blackboard. Joseph Beuys used it during one of his legendary “chalk talks,” performances and lectures he gave throughout the 1960s and 70s (hear more above). Beuys understood his presentations on European politics and society as works of art—particularly as sculptures. He held a strong conviction that ideas, and not objects, were the most important form sculpture could take. Already notorious for his use of materials like felt and fat, Beuys turned to words to mold and express his creative goals.
December 16, 2020
Birch Trees at Dawn on Lake George
In this painting, curving, tubular shapes and light colors evoke not only breeze-struck birch trees in early morning light but the sensuous lines of the human torso as well. Georgia O’Keeffe developed a personal language of semi-abstract forms to suggest the moods of nature. Her in-laws kept a summer home at Lake George in upstate New York, which was the site for the imagery seen in this work.
December 15, 2020
View of the St. Anne’s River
Pervasive golden light, reflected in the smooth surface of the river, establishes the tranquil mood of this landscape. A small herd of cattle wades in the shallow water, undisturbed by the fishermen in the distance. Robert Duncanson created this painting from sketches he had made on a trip to Canada in 1869. Duncanson was one of the first African American painters to experience success not only in the United States, but in Canada as well.
December 14, 2020
Moonlight Coastal Scene
Robert Salmon was hailed for his masterful renditions of moonlight as it permeates moist sea air. The effect imbues this port scene with a quiet solitude and sense of mystery. The fishermen, absorbed in the practical tasks at hand, seem indifferent to the romance of distant travel that the merchant ships in the misty distance evoke.
Salmon, known as an eccentric, solitary man, had a studio overlooking Boston Harbor during its heyday as a shipping and trade center. Salmon’s patrons were wealthy men, mostly engaged in the merchant trade that moved through the port from all parts of the globe. It is easy to see how a painting such as Moonlight Coastal Scene would appeal to their tastes.
December 13, 2020
The Silver Goblet
This seemingly simple still life features a silver goblet, a subject Jean-Siméon Chardin painted often. The dark background contrasts with the goblet’s polished surface, which reflects the objects clustered around it. Chardin produced many evocative still-life paintings in which individual elements contribute to a feeling of quiet solitude and ethereal beauty.
December 12, 2020
Maquette for Sculpture Screen at Lambert-St. Louis Airport Terminal
This scale model is of a sculpture that was designed by Harry Bertoia for the Lambert-St. Louis Air Terminal when it opened in 1956. The 48-foot-long screen delineated the space between the main lobby and the Kitty Hawk dining room. Vividly colored panels suspended within the screen’s framework appeared to flutter as people walked by, creating a delightful sense of rhythm and movement. On one side the panels were painted in oranges, reds, and yellows; the other side had cooler reds, blues, and fuschias. The screen was removed from the terminal sometime between 1965 and 1967 when the airport expanded. This maquette is the only surviving document of both the sculpture and the original paint scheme.
December 11, 2020
Acrobat on the Trapeze
Beckmann’s diaries from Amsterdam recount his numerous visits to cabarets, theaters, and the circus. In this painting, an acrobat in the lofty heights of a circus tent is shown from an improbably close viewpoint. The acrobat crouches on a trapeze and seems to be waiting for the right moment to propel himself back for his next routine. Behind the sturdy figure, which nearly fills the canvas, a second trapeze artist appears in the upper right corner while an audience, suggested by dotted brushwork, fills the middle band of the painting.
Beckmann’s use of bold black outlines and saturated planes of canary yellow and lush turquoise heighten the scene’s energy. To Beckmann, the acrobat’s courageous performance evoked the challenges met by every human: “We are all tightrope walkers,” he said. “We have the desire to achieve balance and to keep it.”
December 10, 2020
Prunus Vase (meiping) with Design of Scattered Peach Blossoms
Visible in white against the dark brown glaze, 24 stylized peach blossoms, each with five petals and five glaze dots to mark the stamens and pistils, embellish this vessel’s exterior. This vase was wheel-thrown in sections that were luted, or joined with a slurry of water and clay before they were fired. Once the vessel was assembled, the 24 discrete stencils of cut paper that produced the design were affixed to its surface, and it was immersed foot-first in the glaze slurry. The bottom of its foot-ring was then immediately wiped free of glaze. When the glaze had stabilized but was still moist, the stencils were removed, leaving the reserved decoration.
December 9, 2020
An artist balances his sketchbook as he captures a scene filled with the red glow of dusk. This landscape presents a sense of both the exotic, with tropical plants and palm trees, and the pastoral, as canoes and sailboats dot the river.
Helen M. Kingman signed the back of the canvas with her name, the date, and her age—15. This is the only painting from her brush that is known to survive. In the same year it was painted, the itinerant portraitist Susan Catherine Moore Waters (1823–1900) had visited the Kingman family in New York. She likely inspired Helen to show off her sure hand at drawing and her fondness for rich jewel tones.
December 8, 2020
St. Lawrence Distributing the Riches of the Church
Through vivid color contrasts, selective highlights, and the saint’s extended left hand, the artist draws us into this scene where the third-century martyr St. Lawrence distributes the Church’s treasures to the poor. Strozzi has captured our attention through the sumptuous grouping of richly ornamented objects that almost burst out of the pictorial space into our world.
December 7, 2020
This seemingly simple work actually contains many layers of paint and fabric (see detail). Scratches through the black on the left reveal a ground of bright orange, also evident under white areas in the lower half. The white rectangle in the center is built up from layers of cut canvas, and its side shimmers with iridescent pinks and gold. Frank Wimberley’s approach to assembling these elements was improvisational and inspired by jazz. In turn, it was appreciated by musicians such as Miles Davis, who collected his work.
December 6, 2020
Village on the Sea
Zigzags and stripes resolve into the triangular rooftops of houses, balloon-like poplar trees, and rolling pine forests. The Baltic Sea appears as a backdrop to the fishing village and artist colony of Nidden (present-day Nida, Lithuania), where Karl Schmidt-Rottluff stayed with Max Pechstein for four months in 1913. The paintings Schmidt-Rottluff made at Nidden transformed his art. Inspired by the landscape, he began to outline his motifs in black and repeat them as generic types for natural objects, giving his art a more patterned look.
December 5, 2020
This remarkable woodcut by Ugo da Carpi presents the fourth-century BCE philosopher Diogenes in a spiraling, muscular pose. Having relinquished all earthly goods, Diogenes is seated naked and immersed in thought with his few possessions: three books, a wooden tub, and a cloak. The plucked chicken at right also appears as an attribute, since Diogenes had mocked Plato’s definition of man as a featherless biped. Ugo da Carpi introduced to Italy the chiaroscuro woodcut, which was developed to suggest the effect of a tonal drawing. He produced this print from four interdependent woodblocks that form a composition when printed together.
December 4, 2020
Bust of Zeus Serapis
As today, individuals in antiquity found ways to express their devotion to the gods. Whether maintaining a small altar at home for the worship of a particular deity, or presenting gifts called votives, at sanctuaries or graves, many of the objects that survive from antiquity served a ritual function. This bronze bust represents Zeus Serapis—a hybrid deity. The pharaohs of Egypt introduced Zeus Serapis in the third-century BCE to unify competing Greek and Egyptian pantheons.
December 3, 2020
The Active Voice
Precisely depicted in shades of gray and taupe, an isolated stone hovers before a solid orange background. Without any other objects to reference for scale, it is impossible to know whether this rock is a tiny pebble or a massive boulder. René Magritte, a prominent member of the surrealist movement, painted disorienting and dreamlike subjects in a style of meticulous realism. The artist’s choice of title here may be an ironic play on the pervasive sense of silence in this painting.
December 2, 2020
The silver inlay on this bottle is brilliantly highlighted against the black background. The bottle is composed of a zinc alloy that turns black when bathed in an acidic solution. Originating in the city of Bidar in India, this type of vessel is known as Bidri ware. It bears the type of floral decoration that is a major theme in the arts of the Islamic courts of India.
December 1, 2020
Hear Expert Commentary
Speaker: Eric Lutz
Associate Curator of Prints, Drawings, and Photographs
Saint Louis Art Museum
Hello, this is Eric Lutz, associate curator of prints, drawings, and photographs. We are looking here at the large-scale photograph by the contemporary artist Beate Gütschow entitled LS #17. Gütschow composes what looks like a panoramic view of a northern European countryside, very reminiscent of Dutch 17th-century paintings. A low, flat horizon is dominated by a vast sky, and lounging figures by a river are enjoying the scenery. Yet what we are seeing is not a window onto an actual place but a meticulous simulation. The artifice is apparent only after sustained and close viewing. For example, the shadows do not match up throughout the image, and there are elements that are disruptive to a harmony of the overall scene, such as patches of dirt, discarded shipping palettes, and the oddly small scale of the main tree.
Gütschow used advanced visual software—digitally stitching the image together from dozens of different negatives that she had taken on her travels. Rather unexpectedly, the sources for the individual elements in this composition are far from the natural environment it suggests. She chose to photograph in urban centers, public parks, even construction sites, recombining the elements to appear as if we are looking at untouched wilderness. Further, she includes city dwellers—people engaged in mundane urban activities. Indeed, many of the figures in LS #17 look disconnected from or awkwardly situated within the bucolic countryside.
All of these subtle inconsistencies reveal the traces of Gütschow’s process for constructing her picture. She even goes so far as to engage the margins around the image by including the registration marks and the printing information from the large-format printer she uses. Gütschow revels in this push and pull between the believability of the illusion and the artifice of its construction.
Reminiscent of a 17th-century Dutch landscape painting with a distant, low horizon and clusters of figures, this photograph is a meticulous simulation. Beate Gütschow digitally combined dozens of images of mundane, unrelated places, such as public parks and construction sites (hear more above). This blending references earlier traditions of European landscape pictures, in which the countryside vistas depicted were also artificial fabrications. The printing information visible at the right deliberately erodes trust in the photographic illusion by hinting at the process of its construction.
November 30, 2020
Two women in bright white and yellow form the focal point of this composition. They toil within a stifling atmosphere of dense steam clouds in a laundry. Jean-Honoré Fragonard, a favorite artist at court, often chose working class people as subjects. Here he captures the demanding physical labor that washing required, most notably in the figure carrying a heavy bundle. The artist makes visible the intense heat of the kettle; contemporary laundry treatises recommended a seventeen-hour process with temperatures near boiling.
November 29, 2020
To Cover the Earth with a New Dew
In this hallucinatory landscape, the sun rises over a scene of swarming white insects and bizarre green-and-pink orbs. Roberto Matta moved to Paris in 1935 and became a prominent figure in the Surrealist movement. This later work showcases his continued interest in Surrealism’s automatic drawing and painting, where the hand moves freely, uninhibited by conscious thought. Matta described his paintings as, “the subconscious in its burning, liquid state; a conscious daytime substitution of the phenomena of dreams.”
November 28, 2020
Herbert Gentry created dream-like fantasy worlds, populated by totems and mask-like faces emerging from a tangle of color contours. A devoted abstractionist, Gentry studied with the French cubist painter Georges Braque and American abstract expressionist artist Beauford Delaney. Gentry retained the figure as a means “to see form.” Above all, Gentry insisted his images be allowed to unfold freely without plan, relying on “a certain spontaneity” where his “subconscious plays a great role.”
November 27, 2020
Two Piece Reclining Figure No. 2
Henry Moore produced an extensive sculptural series of the abstracted human body in two parts. Moore’s reclining forms can be compared to eroded cliffs, an association enhanced by the work’s carved and pock-marked surface. The artist found in these sculptures “a metaphor of the relationship of humanity with the earth.”
November 26, 2020
Ice Bag–Scale B
Claes Oldenburg took a distinctive approach to sculpture, recreating everyday objects such as typewriters, hamburgers, and ice bags, as shown here. He enlarged these familiar items far beyond their actual size, describing them as “monuments to everyday things.” Using fabric materials, such as nylon and vinyl, Oldenburg gave his works their characteristically “soft” appearance. Oldenburg intended for this ice bag to be kinetic, twisting and inflating in order to give the appearance of being filled with ice.
November 25, 2020
The Two Sisters
Henri Fantin-Latour painted this double portrait of his sisters when he was only 22 years old. He presents the two young women in the intimate setting of their home. This double portrait shows the two younger sisters of the painter; Marie reads on the right while Nathalie embroiders on the left. The subdued tones of this bourgeois interior are offset by the colorful yarn on the embroidery frame. The picture is notable for an unspoken psychological tension between the two sitters. An unsettling note in Nathalie’s face hints at her depressive illness which would soon confine her to a mental institution for the rest of her life.
November 24, 2020
Painted from a hill overlooking the Italian town of Olevano Romano, this oil sketch presents a panoramic view of stucco buildings, the rustic countryside, and the distant ruins of a castle at the right. Along the bottom of the painting, Albert Bierstadt recorded the names of nearby locations and later used them as reference points for a larger painting based on this sketch (see detail). Olevano Romano’s great cliffs and distinctive architecture attracted many tourists and artists in the mid-19th century.
November 23, 2020
The Finnish-born architect Eliel Saarinen first designed this urn for a 1934 exhibition at The Metropolitan Museum of Art entitled, Contemporary American Industrial Art. The goal of this celebrated exhibition was to promote a new aesthetic for mass production and to help foster the development of industrial design in the United States. Saarinen was one of several leading architects in the country invited to design a furnished room for the exhibit. His Room for a Lady included furniture, textiles, fashion, and silver designs. The most famous piece from Saarinen’s salon-style installation was the silver-plated urn identical to this one, few of which were ever produced. Its precise geometric forms, absence of ornament, sleek reflective surfaces, and elegant proportions expressed the new “modern” style that came to be associated with progress, optimism, and forward-looking American industrial design.
November 22, 2020
World Receiver Brüsselerstrasse
Hear Expert Commentary
Speaker: Molly Moog
Saint Louis Art Museum
A telescoping antenna extends out of this sculpture as though ready to receive a transmission. However, you won’t hear a sound coming from its core, a block of solid concrete. Renowned artist Isa Genzken has produced a series of these paradoxically silent radios, called World Receivers, starting in 1987, two years before the fall of the Berlin Wall. Evoking the global nature of radio transmission, many of the works in the series are titled after international cities. The title World Receiver Brüsselerstrasse encompasses the name of a street in Berlin as well as the capital of Belgium—Brüssels or Brussels.
Born in 1949 in northern Germany, Isa Genzken moved to Berlin with her family as a child. She studied at the famous Düsseldorf Art Academy in the 1970s and was exposed to works of American Minimalism on view in Düsseldorf art galleries.
In the 1980s Genzken moved to Cologne, a city still rebuilding after Allied bombing raids of the 1940s. She began casting the World Receivers in concrete, a material closely associated with postwar architecture. Germans of Genzken’s generation grew up in and around Modernist housing made from prefabricated concrete slabs that replaced the crumbling ruins left in the aftermath of World War II. The cracks and holes that mark the surface of World Receiver Brüsselerstrasse are reminiscent of wartime ruins themselves as well as the effects of time and weather on the cheaply constructed facades of postwar slab buildings. The intentionally rough surface treatment in Genzken’s sculpture highlights the vulnerability of what appears to be a solid and impenetrable material. Concrete is also the material of the Berlin Wall, constructed by East Germany in 1961 to stem the flow of defectors to the West. A symbol of Germany’s ideological division, the wall nevertheless could not prevent all communication between East and West Berlin.
Situated in a block of concrete, the antenna—a recurring symbol within Genzken’s body of work—brings to mind the radio stations that became sites of communication and propaganda transmission both within and across borders during the Cold War. However, it also suggests broader notions of connection, inspiration, and receptivity. A few years before she began her World Receiver series, Genzken made an oblong sculpture from plaster and the sweepings from her studio floor. Sticking a wire antenna in the top, she called the work Mein Gehirn (My brain)—a physical representation of artistic insight. Later she said of her World Receivers, “My antennas were also meant to be “feelers”—things you stretch out in order to feel something, like the sound of the world and its many tones.”
The familiar sight of a raised chrome antenna transforms this concrete block into a silent radio. Isa Genzken used concrete as a medium to reference the cold, raw material used in postwar German reconstruction (hear more below). World Receiver Brüsselerstrasse is subtitled with the name of a street (Brüsselerstraße in Berlin) and an international city (Brüssel, or Brussels), evoking the global nature of radio transmission. Radio waves cannot be blocked by borders or walls, so radio programs became a site of propaganda transmission during the Cold War. The work is part of a series begun by the artist in the early 1990s.
November 21, 2020
This wide-format hanging scroll depicts a foreground spit of land in monochrome with trees and rocks projecting diagonally from middle right to lower left. A barely discernible far shore in pale gray washes appears from the middle left to middle right. Hine Taizan, a masterful painter with an eccentric personality, was among the most important Japanese literati artists of the 19th century. Taizan’s inscription is written in columns from right to left, as is typical in East Asian writing, across the top of the composition. It includes a poem composed by the 14th-century Chinese scholar and painter Chen Ruyan (c.1331–before 1371), who had originally inscribed this poem on a landscape painting depicting spring mountains.
November 20, 2020
The turn of the century saw a vogue of Freikörperkultur (Free Body Culture) in Germany, a movement which emphasized the health benefits of nudist activity within nature. Erich Heckel here represents an aerial view of naked bathers, probably on Hiddensee Island off the north German coast. The bathers are rendered in angular lines, mirroring those of the jagged lake shore. Heckel depicted water here in a dense, repetitive pattern and affirmed that he “wanted to paint the way one would knit.”
November 19, 2020
Bust of Emperor Caracalla
This bust is modeled after a famous ancient sculpture of Caracalla, a notorious 3rd-century Roman emperor whose stern likeness and steely gaze embody the cruelty and abuse of power for which he was known. The antique bust was popular among 18th-century sculptors working in Rome who made copies for English travelers. Sculpture Hall, in the center of the Museum’s Main Building, was inspired by the expansive Roman public baths that Caracalla built.
November 18, 2020
Still Life with Strawberries
This careful presentation of ripe strawberries, prickly skinned pineapple, and the shiny reflections of elaborate silver and glass speak to the owner’s taste for luxury. The pineapple, an exotic fruit imported into New Orleans and shipped along the Mississippi River, was available only in limited quantities. Wealthy families proudly served it on special occasions. This painting would have adorned the walls of an upper-class dining room, and affirmed social and economic status.
Still life was considered an appropriate subject for female artists, who otherwise were excluded from more lucrative painting subjects and formal training in America in the 19th century. Hannah Brown Skeele worked in St. Louis in the 1860s. She was considered an amateur artist, though her works won considerable acclaim.
November 17, 2020
The Man of Confusion
Parts of the human body, including a wide-eyed face and two hands, float amidst amorphous flesh-toned forms. After Paul Klee was forced to leave Germany and return to his native Switzerland during the Nazi regime, he became afflicted with scleroderma, a chronic disease affecting the skin and organs of the body. Man of Confusion, painted a year before Klee’s death from the disease, presents a self-portrait of the artist in a state of mental and bodily distress.
November 16, 2020
Christina’s Day Off (Down in the Dumps II)
A woman named Christina poses in front of what appears to be a towering heap of trash. On closer inspection, desirable consumer goods, such as a pink car, are identifiable among the rubbish. The title of this painting refers to American artist Andrew Wyeth’s realist painting Christina’s World from 1948, in which a White woman crawls up a grassy hill toward a barn in the distance. In contrast, Robert Colescott represented Christina as an African American woman standing boldly upright and smiling. A wet paintbrush at Christina’s feet reminds us of the artist’s role in reimagining her story. In this work, Colescott both appropriated and critiqued stereotyped imagery, prompting difficult conversations around ideas of consumerism, race, gender, and desirability.
November 15, 2020
Glass-making in the Islamic world reflects a vibrant tradition dating from ancient times. The Romans first discovered how to blow glass on a rod, while the Iranians in late antiquity specialized in molded glass with wheel-cut decoration.
Roman traditions in glass-making also continued for centuries. As late as the 13th century, glass from Egypt and Syria exhibited Roman decorative techniques to incorporate contrasting colors. Such techniques can be seen on this small beaker.
November 14, 2020
Portrait of a Woman
Surrounded by luxurious objects that enhance her beauty and define her good taste, this unknown woman threads the satin ribbons from a string of crystal beads into her hair. The lavish marble-top table with its putto base, the imported Chinese porcelain vase, and the opulent fabrics were frequent motifs in Largillière’s art and were particularly popular among the moneyed society that employed him. In a court where nobility vied to be present when the king dressed in the morning, intimate images like this one, set in the bedroom or boudoir, were appropriate for the display of wealth and power.
November 13, 2020
Approach to the Mountain Pass at Donzère, from the album “The Northern Railway from Paris to Lyon and the Mediterranean”
The spread of the railways across Europe and America was one of the enduring preoccupations of nineteenth-century photography. Édouard-Denis Baldus produced this striking photograph of a line near the Rhone River for an album documenting a new service from Lyon to the Mediterranean Sea sometime around 1859. Made up of finely detailed contact prints, it has been described as the most beautiful photographic album of the nineteenth century, and this image, which shows the recently constructed tracks and an accompanying telegraph line, is one of the finest prints from the album.
As with most early photographs, the chemistry used to make this image was overly sensitive to ultraviolet light. This caused the sky to appear white and featureless in the picture. Baldus knew how to use this limitation to his advantage. The sky becomes a strong graphic element in the picture: a powerful, abstract form echoing the shape of the land.
November 12, 2020
Prunus Vase (meiping) with Design of Peony and Lotus Scrolls
The imperial blue and white porcelains of the Yuan dynasty were artistic and technical marvels. On this vase bold and intricate designs of lotus and peony in imported mineral cobalt stand out in horizontal sections against the pure white body of kaolin clay, all fused under a hard, clear glaze. Broad-shouldered and narrow-waisted, the vase was used to display a single spray of blossoms, traditionally from a plum tree.
November 11, 2020
This somber but hopeful painting served as the cover illustration for the November 27, 1943 edition of the The Saturday Evening Post. Norman Rockwell chose to paint a young girl in World War II-ravaged Italy draped in the coat of a passing United States soldier. Through his image, appropriately named Thanksgiving, Rockwell asked Americans to remember others less fortunate than themselves on a holiday devoted to gratefulness. Rockwell’s career with The Saturday Evening Post lasted nearly 50 years, resulting in 321 original covers that made him a household name.
November 10, 2020
Fireplace Tiles, from the John J. Meacham House, University City, Missouri
This fireplace features a panoramic landscape of flowing lines and glowing colors made from incised glazed tiles surrounded by nearly 200 blue-green matte tiles. Agnes and Frederick Rhead created this set of tiles for the home of John J. Meacham in University City, Missouri. The expansive landscape is depicted at dusk, with a cloud-filled sky beyond a screen of trees, rocks, and plants. The tiles were installed in Meacham’s living room inglenook, a built-in seating area surrounding the hearth, which was a popular feature of Arts and Crafts homes from the 1870s until the 1920s.
The graphic clarity and matte-textured glaze palette seen in these tiles are hallmarks of Arts and Crafts design. In 1910 and 1911 Frederick Hurten Rhead, who had trained in England, joined the internationally renowned ceramic faculty of the Art Academy of the American Woman’s League in University City. He taught and worked at the school, at times with his wife Agnes, also a trained potter.
November 9, 2020
Bulky, monumental figures fill the canvas of Card Players. The group occupies a cramped room lit by a single lamp, elevating the feeling of suspense as one of the men prepares to play his cards. Artist Charles White was involved with the active community of African American artists in Chicago in the 1930s and 1940s. Their influence led him to create artwork that celebrates both the everyday lives and the history of African Americans.
November 8, 2020
To create this abstract painting, Gerhard Richter dragged and scraped a spatula over thickly applied pigments, allowing multiple layers of paint to shine through. What appears to be a spontaneous composition was actually laboriously worked by the artist to achieve the desired effects. While Ölberg can be read as a luscious, brilliantly colored painting in the style of American Abstract Expressionism, Richter’s cool, methodical approach challenges the emotionally charged, spiritual expression of that abstract tradition.
November 7, 2020
Still Life with Mice
The artist has assembled sweets and fruits, including apples, sugared almonds, gingersticks, a lemon, and an orange, in a way that seems casual but was actually the result of careful planning. Diagonals echo other diagonals while the apple and reflective plate are offset by the citrus fruits. The picture may refer to the vanity of the physical world since the ripened apple exhibits decay and mice sometimes symbolize death or sin. It could also be a celebration of costly confections.
November 6, 2020
Page from an Album made for Jahāngīr
This painting was made by the Hindu court artist Keshav Das, who worked for the Mughal emperor Akbar (1542–1605). It shows the Old Testament character Joseph recounting the prophetic dream in which his family as “the sun and the moon and the eleven stars” bowed to him in reverence. The composition is adapted from a 1544 engraving by the German artist Georg Pencz (c.1500–1550) entitled, Joseph Telling His Dream to His Father, which Jesuit missionaries disseminated in India during the mid-16th century.
The scene is on the back of a sumptuously illustrated page (see recto) with a poem by Mir Ali, who was famous throughout the Persian-speaking world as a calligrapher. Both painting and calligraphy were collected by Akbar’s son and successor, Jahāngīr (1569–1627). He ordered the pages to be assembled in a special album and given elaborate borders of scenes from a hunt by an unknown but highly skilled court artist.
November 5, 2020
Twilight in the Wilderness
A stand of trees and open field are dramatically silhouetted against a vibrant sunset of orange, yellow, and purple. Most likely painted along the front range of the White Mountains in New Hampshire, this scene communicated poetic and symbolic meaning to audiences at the time rather than landscape details.
Painted at the close of the Civil War, such a vivid representation of the end of day provided visual affirmation of the profound trauma Americans had endured. Simultaneously, the grandeur of the scene spoke to American democratic fervor that would carry the country through its distress.
November 4, 2020
This work, painted by Pablo Picasso when he was just 20 years old, features a mother who grasps her toddler by the hand and holds her infant high against her shoulder. The woman stands resolute on the outskirts of a town or city, looking upon her surroundings with a determined gaze. The blue-gray tone of her skin is a precursor to Picasso’s Blue Period, during which time he depicted several downtrodden members of urban society in a palette of cool colors.
November 3, 2020
The County Election
A large group of citizens gathers to place their votes in an election. Campaigning politicians anxiously press their party tickets toward individuals. One of the newest citizens, an Irish immigrant, is taking an oath that he had not voted elsewhere, just as one of the oldest, a Revolutionary War “76-er” veteran, is descending the steps. Merchants in top hats discuss the issues with laborers in shirtsleeves, an example of the rational exchange that sustains democracy.
Other individuals present a less responsible and informed perspective. One drunken citizen, unable to stand, is nonetheless dragged to cast a vote. Another sits on a bench to steady his head, his clarity evidently lost in a brawl. Two boys on the ground play mumblety peg, a knife game that progressively increases in risk. George Caleb Bingham revealed what every American supportive of an election understands: that the democratic ideal must be embraced even though uninformed votes could prevail.
November 2, 2020
The artist who created this bowl carved recognizable bears at each end while the side of the bowl features a “formline” design. For over a millennium, Native artists in coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska have used sinuous lines with ovoid and u-form shapes to create imagery. This visual vocabulary is now called formline.
Historically, artists learned formline carving and painting through apprenticeship with a master. At the end of the 19th century, territorial governments in Alaska and British Columbia imposed restrictions on ceremonial life, which had provided a major context for production of formline designs. In the first years of the 20th century, Native artists began to reconstruct formline vocabularies on their own based on observations of historic artworks rather than training through apprenticeship.
This object is featured in our current engagement activity Vote Your Art.
November 1, 2020
Gorilla features smooth surfaces, abstracted forms, and a mask-like face. These elements are evidence of Houston Chandler’s search for “the simplicity that brings out the greatest line of expression.” Though the gorilla rests in a hunched pose, its muscular limbs, arranged in diagonals across its body, allude to its physical power.
Born in St. Louis, Chandler was the second African American to earn a Master of Fine Arts degree at the University of Iowa. He returned to teach for many years at Vashon High School, and directed summer classes at the People’s Art Center, the city’s first racially integrated community arts center.
This object is featured in our current engagement activity Vote Your Art.
October 31, 2020
The Clenched Hand
Auguste Rodin often produced fragmentary studies of individual anatomical features, and stated, “I have always had an intense passion for the expression of the human hand.” In this work, the boldly modeled swellings and depressions of the hand suggest a sense of agitated anguish. This sculpture is probably related to Rodin’s grand project, The Burghers of Calais, in which a group of elderly men face the prospect of impending death (see related object).
October 30, 2020
Grasshopper Floor Lamp
The imaginative assembly of simple materials—two lengths of tubular steel and a bullet-shaped shade—gives this floor lamp its distinctive, animated form. Designed by Greta Magnusson Grossman in 1947, the aptly titled Grasshopper Floor Lamp was featured in a number of the Swedish-born architect’s own residences. Perched high on Los Angeles hilltops, the open-plan houses outfitted with multi-functional furnishings epitomized the casual, indoor-outdoor ethos of California modern.
This object is featured in our current engagement activity Vote Your Art.
October 29, 2020
This pendant shows a deer posed mid-stride, frozen at a specific moment in time. The animal’s head is curved back with its legs pulled close to the body, as though looking and leaping to evade a predator. Carved from an exotic marine shell, the pendant was perhaps a piece of personal jewelry for a Maya noble. Images of deer frequently occur in depictions of hunting as well as sacrifice. The pendant may have been bestowed to a young Maya hunter as a token of his achievements.
This object is featured in the Museum’s current engagement activity Vote Your Art.
October 28, 2020
Half Circle Red
Sam Gilliam’s Half Circle Red combines separate pieces of canvas, which gap, bulge, and double over. Without a traditional mount or frame, they are pinned in place directly to the wall. Interested in how his paintings interact with the surrounding space, Gilliam jettisoned stretchers—typically wooden rectangular support structures—altogether during the late 1960s. Instead, his relaxed, undulating canvases suspend from the wall or ceiling to create “drape” paintings. This method, along with his drip and stain painting technique, emphasized the intrinsic properties of his materials—how acrylic pools and canvas sags, for example.
October 27, 2020
Road Down the Palisades
The curve of a road directs our attention deep into the landscape, past a screen of wiry trees to the Hudson River beyond. The bright spots of blue and red invigorate the rather dreary cloud-filled sky and dirty patches of snow. The thickly applied paint, strong outlines, and areas of bold but harmonious unmixed color, are all characteristics of Ernest Lawson’s best landscapes.
October 26, 2020
The Flute Lesson and The Grape Eaters
This pair of porcelains, based on a 1752 comic operetta, represents the romance between a shepherd (unnamed) and a shepherdess (Lisette). In one, the shepherd teaches Lisette to play his flute—he fingers the notes while she blows into the instrument. In the related piece, the shepherd feeds grapes to his beloved. Shepherds and shepherdesses in amorous couplings appear frequently in the painting, sculpture, and decorative arts of the 18th century. Mme Du Pompadour, the favorite mistress of Louis XV, owned examples of this pair.
October 25, 2020
A fisherman in rubber boots, oilskin jacket, and hat opens his mouth as though shouting to a distant comrade. A marine ray at his feet suggests the nature of his profession. Constantin Meunier may have modeled this figure after laborers he observed at the wharf at Ostend, a Belgian coastal city. Meunier became well-known late in his career for sculptures of workers at docks, mines, and forges and in agriculture and domestic occupations. Despite this fisherman’s grueling employment, his upright posture and muscular physique lend dignity, even heroism, to his labor.
October 24, 2020
Distant Road II
This painting depicts an expansive landscape splashed in ink across four paper panels (zoom in). Land, water, and natural features are represented from a high perspective. Reading from right to left, the first panel depicts an open expanse of water; the second panel, an extended isthmus or peninsula. The third features dense hills and mountains ranging beyond the tops and branches of evergreens; the fourth panel shows an opening expanse of water.
October 23, 2020
Solidus of Byzantine Empire with Bust of Jesus Christ, minted under Justinian II
A particularly important moment in the history of Christian art is depicted on this gold coin. A bearded image of Christ Pantokrator (Ruler of All), inspired by earlier Greco-Roman images of the god Zeus, dominates the obverse (front). In his left hand, Christ holds the book of Gospels; his right hand is raised in a gesture of benediction. On the reverse (see image), the emperor Justinian, rendered at a smaller scale, identifies himself as a “servant of Christ.” This imagery represents the first time in the history of the Byzantine Empire that Jesus Christ appears as the preeminent image on coinage, with the emperor relegated to subservient status on the back.
October 22, 2020
This painting demonstrates Artemisia Gentileschi’s success in capturing textures. These include the golden strands of hair that caress the figure’s shoulder, the lush fabric of the bedcover, and the metal coins that fall upon bare flesh. Painted when Gentileschi was only 19 years old, this picture reflects the skill, learned from her father Orazio, to paint subtle flesh tones and rich surfaces.
Such sensuous effects are appropriate to the ancient Greek story of Danaë, a young woman who was confined to a chamber by her father to prevent her becoming pregnant. An oracle (or seer) had predicted she would bear a son who would kill her own father. Zeus, king of the gods, was able to thwart the plan by transforming himself into a golden rain to impregnate Danaë.
October 21, 2020
Sunset evokes flames engulfing redwood trees during a wildfire, a distinct memory from the artist’s time living in California from 1955 to 1976. Memory is a central theme of Evangeline Montgomery’s work. She uses travel diaries and photographs to transform her experiences and awe of nature into visual representations. Montgomery traveled extensively throughout her career starting in 1983, when she began work for the Arts America Program at the United States Information Agency. In her role there, she coordinated tours of American museum exhibitions at home and abroad.
October 20, 2020
The Red Stairway
A crumbling environment and a figure with one leg convey the wreckage that war, in this case World War II (1939–1945), leaves behind. The space within the ruined building remains unresolved as does the destination of the man on the red stairs, visually suggesting the senselessness of war.
The artist himself wrote of this painting, “to me this is both the hope and the fate of man, you know. It’s obvious almost that he seems to recover from the most frightful wars, the most frightful plagues, and goes right on again when he knows full well that he’s going into another one; but that’s the eternal hope in the human being.”
October 19, 2020
Spouted Vessel with Painted Motifs
The bold interlocking swirl of red and white symbolizes worldly dualities: peace and war, light and dark, earth and sky. The Quapaw are known for beautifully painted vessels using the colors red, white, and black. Migrating from the Ohio valley to the confluence of the Arkansas and Mississippi rivers, the Quapaw flourished late in the Mississippian period, around the 16th century. The Quapaw continued to inhabit what is now Arkansas through the early 19th century. They have since relocated to Oklahoma, where they still reside today. It is likely this teapot form was based on vessels introduced following the arrival of Europeans in the mid-16th century. Quapaw teapots typically lack an elaborate handle. They instead feature a small node opposite the spout.
October 18, 2020
Lady in White
An elegant woman artfully poses in profile. Though the painting’s small size and our close view would suggest a certain intimacy, she seems quite remote and absorbed in her own thoughts. In late 19th-century America—the Gilded Age—women were understood to maintain ideals of truth and beauty. In this painting, the woman embodies a timeless, unattainable beauty. She is presented to us more as an object to be enjoyed for its refinement, like the graceful Empire chair and her antique gown.
October 17, 2020
Giant Three-Way Plug, Scale A
Claes Oldenburg produces monumental sculptures of everyday consumer objects. Just outside the Main Building, an enormous three-way electrical plug lies partially buried in the ground. The artist has described it as resembling “an implement left over from a war, returning to nature.” Oldenburg first installed the sculpture in this location in 1971, noting that the plug reminded him of historic architecture. Here, its arching lines and recessed spaces complement the classical design of the Museum’s Main Building by architect Cass Gilbert.
October 16, 2020
Two Girls in Front of Birch Trees
Two girls with striking green eyes stand within a wooded area. Paula Modersohn-Becker developed a deliberately straightforward style of flat color and strong outlines that reflects her awareness of avant-garde French painters. Modersohn-Becker was a prominent figure within a rural colony of artists at Worpswede in northern Germany, and produced work with a deep sympathy for the local peasantry. She died young in childbirth.
October 15, 2020
In the Roman Campagna
In the Roman Campagna is a scene of the Italian countryside awash in diffuse light. In this landscape, George Inness included appealingly pastoral and picturesque details, such as the flock of grazing sheep and the simply dressed woman near the brook. The architectural ruin in the foreground and the caves in the distance were intended to call to mind Italy’s ancient past.
October 14, 2020
The Wounded Seagull
Jules Breton regularly visited the coastal region of Brittany in the west of France and here represented an idealized Breton peasant in profile against the wind. The artist was fascinated by the “mystic wildness” of Breton women and focused on this peasant’s compassion for a wounded bird while other healthy birds glide in the distance. This work was shown in 1881 at the first special exhibition of the newly founded St. Louis School and Museum of Fine Arts, the predecessor of the Saint Louis Art Museum.
October 13, 2020
The Ecstasy of Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene, a Christian saint popular in the 17th century, is being carried into the sky by angels. According to a 13th-century account, she retired to a cave in southern France near the end of her life. Her daily prayer ritual, depicted here, included an ascent into heaven facilitated by a group of angels who carried her aloft. Francesco Albani trained in Bologna, Italy, where artists utilized drawings made by sketching live models.
October 12, 2020
Ritual Seat (duho)
This extraordinary sculpture is carved from incredibly dense guaiacum wood, its form is likely an actual tree branch. The artist used the natural angles to define the bent legs of the human figure. The figure’s arms are curled up behind the head, while a shallow curved surface dominates the emaciated body. (The figures ribs can be seen on the bottom.) This depressed area led early scholars to identify the object as a duho, or ritual seat, but it may instead have functioned as a ceremonial platter during a ritual feast.
This work represents a masterpiece of the Taino civilization that thrived in the Caribbean in the 14th and 15th centuries. Such objects were collected by 19th-century businessmen working in Santo Domingo, who often signed them to establish ownership and document their history.
October 11, 2020
Chakaia Booker combined overlapping shapes produced with relief printmaking and lithography techniques to create this enigmatic image. The arranged and collaged printed papers relate to Booker’s sculpting process, in which she assembles large-scale works from cut recycled tires. Some of the elements in this work, especially the repetitive patterns in an inky palette, resemble tire treads or perhaps their imprint.
October 10, 2020
Pair of Torah Finials
Finials (rimmonim in Hebrew) were among the most elaborate objects wealthy Jewish patrons commissioned for Torahs in the 18th-century Netherlands. In the Jewish faith Torahs contain the law of God revealed to Moses and recorded in the first five books of the Hebrew scriptures. The finial bells would have signaled the Torah scroll’s approach as it was carried in a procession that made its way through the synagogue. The silver cylinder supports feature stamps and a Hebrew inscription. The stamps confirm a date of 1778, and the inscription commemorates the gift of Yaakov Gedalja, born in the Hague (in present-day Netherlands) in 1760, the son of Tanchum Pos.
October 9, 2020
In Teasing, the thick trunk of a tree conceals a smiling female figure from the faun who playfully pursues her. Franz von Stuck often depicted the mischievous antics of fauns, mythological creatures that were part goat, part human. Here Stuck created the shaded forest landscape surrounding this tryst with small dabs of paint in contrasting colors, exhibiting an engagement with the painting techniques of pointillism. Stuck worked in illustration, decorative art, and sculpture but is best known for his allegorical and mythological paintings suffused with drama, sensuality, and humor.
October 8, 2020
Dining Chair, from the Ward W. Willits House, Highland Park, Illinois
The simple, elegant form of this chair does not depend on ornament or carving but on the rhythmic play of lines and shapes. Like all of Frank Lloyd Wright’s furniture, it was intended to harmonize with the home for which it was designed. Its high back contrasted with the dining room’s horizontal orientation and also served as a partition: when the six chairs were pulled up around the table, the dining ensemble became an intimate room within a larger space.
October 7, 2020
Ladders surround a cross where seven figures remove the body of Jesus. The delicate human bodies and angular limbs interlock with the ladders. In addition, their sad expressions and striped garments, reminiscent of prison clothing, convey a sense of entrapment.
Stephen Greene was an instructor for one year, in 1946, at Washington University in St. Louis. During that time, he began to produce a group of paintings representing episodes from the life of Jesus. As Life magazine noted in 1950, “Greene’s canvases are not ingratiating. Peopled by sad, manikin‑like men, they have a strained and morbid cast…. Greene does not call himself a religious man, but because biblical stories are universally recognized and easily understood, he used them to communicate his own feelings on the state of modern man—a state Greene considers to be chaotic and insecure.”
October 6, 2020
In this wall-mounted sculpture, Leonardo Drew arranged over 300 wooden panels covered with fabric, string, feathers, and other discarded objects, which he then burned, rusted, and stained. According to Drew, his art is rooted in his experiences of living and growing up in New York City, where daily life involves navigating the city’s gridded streets and organic decay. He also cites other inspirations such as the history of African Americans in the United States and a trip to Senegal where he visited a former slave trading post. Despite such specific sources, Drew likes to keep his work open to interpretation: “I think that these pieces should become mirrors. They should be a collection of ideas and never a one-sided issue.”
October 5, 2020
Miniature Two-handled Jar (amphoriskos)
Despite the beauty of this container, it was the contents inside that were truly valuable. Luxurious oils and sweet-smelling unguents were coveted and used by both men and women. The ancient Greeks even used olive oil as a soap by spreading it on their skin and scraping it off with a metal tool called a strigil.
October 4, 2020
Panoramic Landscape with Shepherds
The flat horizon line and the subtle tones of the sky and reflective water surfaces are the major focus of this painting, rather than the humans or their bovine companions. Aelbert Cuyp uses delicate shifts in the color of the sky as well as a limited amber palette to describe the land and its inhabitants. While some of his contemporaries depicted a cloudy and misty sky, sunlight is often an important element in Cuyp’s pictures.
October 3, 2020
For the Wind to Tear
An ambiguous, angular form is set against an expansive gray background. Its shape can be read as a mountaintop seen from a distance or a gathering of fabric viewed at close range. This painting’s muted palette and sense of mystery are hallmarks of the American Surrealist Kay Sage. For several years, this work hung in the home of the artist, where she lived with her partner Yves Tanguy, a fellow Surrealist painter.
October 2, 2020
Fans and Stream
Pictures in the shapes of fans strewn across empty space and swirling eddies of gold define this pair of stunning decorative screens. The opened fans, brightly painted with traditional themes of landscapes, birds, and flowers, subtly reveal the four seasons, from the plum blossoms of early spring on the right to the snow-covered cypress of winter on the left. Scattering fans is associated with the art and culture of the ancient capital Kyoto and a particular outing of aristocrats and ladies along the scenic mountains of Arashiyama. As the procession crossed the Sugagawa River near Tenryuji Temple, the fan of a young courtier was caught by a sudden gust of wind and drifted down into the waters below. Delighted and inspired by the beautiful and poignant image, others threw their fans over the bridge to watch them float on the breeze into the flowing stream.
October 1, 2020
The Tenth Street Studio
Sumptuous tapestries, exotic metalwork, imported porcelains, fine art, and elegantly adorned patrons were sure to be found in the studios of artists at the end of the 19th century. This painting depicts the studio of its artist, William Merritt Chase, one of the most successful painters of the era. Appreciating—and being seen appreciating—such exquisite finery was an important cultural and social marker for both patron and artist. An invitation to a reception at Chase’s studio (sure to be in the society news) was the most sought after in New York City.
September 30, 2020
A freely painted area of sky blue surrounds green and gold concentric rings and a solid blue circle at center. The edge of the outer blue area appears to undulate, creating the effect of counterclockwise rotation. Kenneth Noland produced his characteristic target-like format by staining thinned paint directly onto raw unprimed canvas, leaving some areas unpainted. The gestural perimeter of blue contrasts with the meticulously painted circular rings.
September 29, 2020
Travelers Awaiting a Ferry
The juxtaposition of steep mountains and peaceful river, combined with the foggy mist above the water, creates a mood of mystery and nostalgia. Philips Wouwerman has created a fanciful place. We know that such topography does not exist in the regions in which the artist worked. His evocative rendering combines the careful structure of Italian landscapes with precise markers to indicate specific depths (here suggested by different rocky outcroppings) with the atmosphere of an alpine scene. The white horse, seen in profile, occurs frequently in Wouwerman’s landscapes.
September 28, 2020
A simple rectangular wardrobe achieves a ritual significance when enlarged and adorned with graphic red and white stripes. Ettore Sottsass, the influential Italian designer who later founded the design group Memphis in 1981, developed his Superboxes as part of a limited-edition furniture series. Drawing on the spirit of contemporary artistic movements, this functional sculpture, meant to be displayed in the center of the room, is Sottsass’s cheeky “altarpiece for the domestic liturgy.”
September 27, 2020
Slightly Off Keel #60
Slightly Off Keel #60—a title referring to a sailboat’s delicate balance as it speeds through water—consists of multiple mark-making types, both structured and loose. Moving away from canvas in the late 1990s (learn more), Nanette Carter adopted Mylar, a translucent polyester film, as her support of choice, which she admired for its potential to be used on both sides. The material is frosted on the surface, providing a satisfying tooth to hold oil paint, which she applies by brush or sometimes through printing (zoom in).
September 26, 2020
Still Life with Guitar
Interlocked in a harmonious geometric pattern, patches of subdued shades of brown, green, and blue give form to a guitar, a sheet of music, a bowl of grapes, a goblet, a carafe, and a table. Juan Gris developed a distinctive Cubist style, in which abstracted forms retain their volume through the integration of light and shadow. Here the areas that depict the grapes, table, and carafe suggest three-dimensionality, offering a dynamic balance between representation and abstraction.
September 25, 2020
The smooth geometric forms, cool palette, and industrial subject are characteristic of “precisionist” paintings. These paintings were made during the 1920s and 1930s when the nation’s technological and industrial might was celebrated. The repetition of gray silos across the bulk of the painting seems adamantly impersonal. Ralston Crawford explained that, “I have painted many pictures which utilize something I can call a ‘blank center’…Coal Elevators is probably close to one of the best in this category.”
September 24, 2020
Model of a Pharaoh’s Head
Heads of a king, like this one, became popular in the Late and Ptolemaic periods, but it is unknown whether they were actual models used by sculptors or offerings, since many have been found in temples. The back of this unfinished bust contains a grid (see above). The Egyptians divided the human body into 18 (and later 21) equal squares from the feet to the head, ensuring that the proportions of a figure would be uniform, regardless of its size.
September 23, 2020
These resourceful children have turned the urban debris around them into the equipment of war. Their solemn faces, compressed angular forms, and implied violence of their play yield a tension that brings to mind the stress of World War II (1939–1945), then ravaging Europe. Artist Philip Guston depicted the children not in the heat of battle but rather in a moment of solemn conference. Their grave manner reflects the seriousness that underlies every human conflict and provides a view into the deep emotional crisis of their war torn world.
September 22, 2020
Banquet Table (kakeban) with Design of Clouds and Chrysanthemums
The sumptuous gold-lacquer chrysanthemums decorating this serving table celebrate the beauty and abundance of autumn. Revealed among delicate, lacy leaves, a profusion of blossoms in low relief is echoed by spiraling clouds of swirling gold and silver flake, all against a gold-dusted, “pear-skin” ground (see additional views). The raised, neatly indented corners on the top complement the four finely proportioned legs, the taut, curving shapes of which give the table an elegant and dynamic form. In style and technique, this table closely conforms to work from sixteenth-century Kyoto, especially the costly commissions for the nobility and the ruling military class. Beautifully set with gourmet morsels before an honored guest, the table would exemplify the lavishly ornate high aristocratic style of later Japan under the rule of the shoguns
September 21, 2020
Pair of Vases
The sumptuous blue surface, gilded leaf-handles, and delicate painting of these ornamental vases exemplify the Sevres factory’s mastery of porcelain making in the mid-18th-century. Rimmed in gold, the top opening resembles precious shells while the handles seem to have been formed by encasing myrtle leaves in gold. The vases bear narrative scenes (zoom in) based on compositions by the French painter Jean-Baptist Greuze (1725-1805). The Blind Man Fooled (L’Aveugle trompé) on the vase at right, shows a young woman fooling her blind husband as she attempts to sneak her lover out of the basement and away before her spouse discovers her ruse. The scene on the vase at left, Mommy (La Maman), depicts a mother trying to feed her younger son while the older one grabs at the spoon intended for his brother.
September 20, 2020
City Lights (Prophet with No Tongue)
This print is constructed of cut paper inked with colors that evoke a city skyline (zoom in). The deep blue is punctuated by bright pinks and yellows—evidence of bright lights in a bustling metropolis—and the irregular shape evokes a silhouetted cityscape. Mary Lovelace O’Neal worked primarily as a painter until 1984, when Robert Blackburn invited her to his printmaking studio. Captivated by the print medium, she created this work at the Brandywine Workshop in Philadelphia in 1988.
September 19, 2020
Bust of a Black Man
This sensitive portrait of an unknown man stands as one of the most dignified representations of a Black African from 17th-century Europe. It is the only secular work known to have been sculpted by Melchior Barthel. The bust exemplifies the artist’s mastery of expressive carving and bold contrast of color and material. Barthel’s greatest achievement was the completion of the Venetian tomb of Doge Giovanni Pesaro (died 1659), which includes colossal muscular figures who stand with the weight of the upper tomb on their shoulders. Bust of a Black Man probably records one of the models who posed for that project. Carved in black serpentine, the sculpture has been oiled to give it both greater luster and higher contrast with the white marble clothing.
September 18, 2020
In this narrative scene, Eve grasps the forbidden apple, which she will hand to the golden figure of Adam on the left. Animal figures are dotted throughout the composition, including a bird perched on the antlers of a deer to the bottom right. Chagall treated this traditional subject in a highly modern, Cubist style, which he encountered after moving to Paris in 1910. Forms are broken down into faceted planes; the Cubist device of the split face allows Eve to look at both the apple and its destination.
September 17, 2020
The deadly combat that locks these two roosters together can be read as an allegory for the World War II (1939–1945) battles raging in Europe at the time this sculpture was made. The roosters are silhouetted in space, their forms created through outline rather than three-dimensional volume. The hand wrought steel plates point in different directions and shift behind each other—creating an energetic, explosive sense of action. The arc welded steel of Cockfight is a hallmark of David Smith, who worked for many years as a factory welder.
September 16, 2020
The Conversion and Baptism of St. Augustine by St. Ambrose
Energetic brushwork, rich color contrasts, and an angled view into the church interior enliven this image of two important events in a saint’s life (zoom in). The painting was one of seven canvases portraying the life of St. Ambrose (c.334/340–397), bishop of Milan, painted by Juan de Valdés Leal and formed part of a decorative cycle for the lower oratory of the Archbishop’s Palace in Seville. It depicts St. Ambrose converting St. Augustine to Christianity (foreground) and Augustine’s subsequent baptism on April 24, 387 (background at right).
September 15, 2020
The Three Princesses
In this composition, intersecting lines create an irregular grid of triangles, curves, and unique shapes. These colorful components form the bodies and clothing of three female figures. Artist Carlos Mérida advocated a type of abstraction based on the bold, geometric patterns and vibrant colors of Maya textiles and other Indigenous Latin American arts. Mérida, a Guatemalan artist who lived much of his life in Mexico, sought to establish a uniquely American form of abstract art in conversation with contemporary European artistic developments.
September 14, 2020
Fishes, Wishes and Star Apple Blue
The title of this painting evokes a sense of childlike wonder. Frank Bowling referenced the deep indigo color of the star apple, a fruit native to the Caribbean region and reminiscent of his childhood in Guyana. The artist works the surfaces of his paintings with clear acrylic gel using a spatula and a palette knife, often mixing pearlescent and metallic pigments into the paint. After Bowling graduated from the Royal College of Art in London, he began to work with acrylic paint, which was introduced to the commercial market in the 1960s.
September 13, 2020
Rain Drops on Lupin Leaves
In 1940, at about the same time it started to collect photographs, the Saint Louis Art Museum began to host an annual competition called the Saint Louis International Salon of Photography. Laura Gilpin was one of its most distinguished contributors, and her photograph entered the Museum’s collection as a result of the event. Gilpin’s warm-toned black and white photograph captures young lupin plants before they erect the showy spikes of flowers that are their most obvious feature. Their tender leaves, sprinkled with raindrops, form a sunburst-like pattern across the image. The immature plants speak of rebirth, growth, and potential, while the water droplets on their leaves suggest purification.
September 12, 2020
This sleek, luxurious table combines unconventional materials for furniture—polished and engraved pewter, brass, and leather—with glossy black-painted wood. Its style is a blend of modern and traditional elements. Concentric squares inside a frame with projecting corners engraved on the top evoke historical architectural forms with modern simplicity.
September 11, 2020
Charing Cross Bridge
In this scene, a train puffs across the bridge as sunlight falls through the mist and creates shimmering patterns on the river surface. Claude Monet painted a series of about 30 paintings of the Charing Cross railroad bridge spanning the River Thames, each highlighting different light and weather effects. Monet was a noted Anglophile and painted this view on one of three visits to London between 1899 and 1901. He noted, “I love London…what I love, above all, is the fog.”
September 10, 2020
Relief with Winged Genie
The carved image in this relief may represent a mythical being known as a winged genie. The figure ensures fertility and stability by pollinating a sacred tree with a cone and situla, a bucket with a handle. The cuneiform inscriptions over the surface of the sculpture expound the Assyrian king Ashurnasirpal II’s splendid endeavors and exploits. In the heart of his empire in the northern part of present-day Iraq, King Ashurnasirpal built huge royal palaces that were guarded by colossal statues of man-headed bulls. Endless reliefs decorating the interiors of the palaces portrayed the glory of the king and the mighty deities who protected him and his vast holdings.
September 9, 2020
The Charm of Subsistence
Martin Puryear created this work by weaving heavy rattan and building the sculpture up from its wooden base. From 1964 to 1966, Puryear spent two years with the Peace Corps in Sierra Leone, West Africa, where he was exposed to the Indigenous craft traditions of a pre-industrial society. In his subsequent sculptures, the artist drew inspiration from the buildings and shelters of this country
September 8, 2020
A cockpit and wings slowly emerge from the array of angular, abstract shapes in Levitator Abstraction. This painting was inspired by the Turboprop Skyshark, a short-lived Navy aircraft carrier bomber designed in the early 1950s. The complex interlocking forms in this work reflect a debt to the artist’s early training in engineering and architecture. However, at times they appear more like a busy scattering of paper cutouts than the volumetric parts of an airplane. This is not surprising given Esphyr Slobodkina was also an experienced dressmaker. Despite the machinelike quality, the painting playfully mimics the proportions and wood-grain surface of the actual drafting board on which she worked. Slobodkina’s creative talents extended beyond painting, dressmaking, and architecture. She was also a well-respected textile designer and children’s book author and illustrator. Her most-loved book is the classic Caps for Sale.
September 7, 2020
A carpenter sits at a workbench surrounded by a fantastic array of tools and fasteners. The mountains behind him mirror his strength. The moment portrayed here, however, is not an act of construction but of preparation, as the builder sits sharpening a chisel. Wood as a building material is almost completely absent. He is alone and reflective, weighing the projects ahead. Jacob Lawrence is known for his bold use of flat planes of color, a technique he first developed as a member of the Harlem Renaissance in the 1930s. In this work, he softened his vigorous application of gouache, an opaque water-based paint, with transparent watercolor.
Lawrence’s Builders #1 presents a window within a window and a hopeful allegory of African American life. This is the first expression of a theme that Lawrence would return to for the rest of his career. His builders serve as metaphorical figures, simultaneously evoking artistic creation and social struggle. Like the people who won the hard-fought battles of the civil rights movement, the craftsman stands for the potential of all African Americans.
September 6, 2020
Although evocative of the natural world, this painting represents a fantasy of the picturesque. Doves fly in and out of the dovecote while a man and child watch from a rickety bridge (see details above). The blue-green color and benign decay of the various structures present a romantic notion of the outdoors, reflecting contemporary ideas about nature. François Boucher was the favorite painter of Louis XV’s mistress Madame de Pompadour who, with her friends, enjoyed playing at being shepherdesses and milkmaids in charmingly idealized country settings similar to the one portrayed here.
September 5, 2020
Interior with Young Woman Tracing a Flower
A young woman traces a drawing of a tulip against a windowpane; her study lies discarded on the floor, and she has been distracted by her pet squirrel perched on an armchair nearby. This painting may be a self-portrait of the artist at work in her studio. The painting was awarded a gold medal at the 1824 Salon and was then acquired for the prestigious collection of the French aristocrat, the Duchesse de Berry.
September 4, 2020
Woman with Butterfly Tie
This young woman’s fashionable dress has diagonal pleats to emphasize shoulder width, ballooning “leg of mutton” sleeves, and a full skirt, all designed to accentuate her diminutive waistline. The perspective of her nose and brow line and overly small hands lack realistic proportion, but they create a rhythm of curving lines when paired with the locket chain, belt, and lace. The cost of a portrait painted by a pre-eminent artist was beyond the reach of many middle-class families. Consequently, they turned to the plentiful, less expensive self-taught artists who traveled from town to town to record their likenesses. These transient artists stayed in one spot only long enough to complete whatever work they could find before moving on to the next town. The output of these artists ranges from crude portrayals to the charm seen in this portrait.
September 3, 2020
Amphora with Herakles and Apollo
The scene on this vase shows an argument between siblings: the mortal hero Herakles and his divine half-brother Apollo. Enraged that Apollo’s priestess at the sanctuary of Delphi would not provide him with an answer to his question, Herakles tries to steal the sacred tripod. Here we see the brothers struggling to hold on to the tripod. Each is flanked by a female supporter: at left Artemis accompanies her twin brother Apollo, and Athena, patron and protector of Herakles, is shown at right. These figures are identifiable by a series of attributes or accessories (zoom in). Herakles has his wooden club and lion skin, Apollo has his quiver of arrows, and Athena has her helmet. White paint was used to distinguish the female characters.
September 2, 2020
Large hibiscus-like blossoms with furling leaves and a shimmery chevron ground lend this damask, or figured, reversible fabric, an uncommon air. Designed by Anna Maria Garthwaite in October of 1752, it shows her expertise in faithfully representing nonnative, newly introduced flowers. Garthwaite was one of the most prolific and successful designers in Spitalfields, England’s silk weaving center in east London.
While few details are known about Garthwaite’s personal life, scholars believe she was part of a circle of influential naturalists. This group included the botanical illustrator Georg Dionysius Ehret (1708–1770) and the merchant and plant collector Peter Collinson (1694–1768). Though botanical illustrations are known to have inspired some of Garthwaite’s designs, it is also likely she visited gardens and “greenhouses, stowed and crowded with vast varieties of exotic plants of surprising oddness and beauty.”
September 1, 2020
Out into the Open
In this painting, squares of bold colors form a loosely organized grid. Stanley Whitney’s travels abroad and the architecture he encountered influenced his work significantly. Visiting Rome in 1992, he admired the blocks used to construct monumental ancient structures. Later, in 1994, he said, “I went to Egypt—the pyramids and all the tombs. I realized that I could stack all the colors together, and not move the air. I realized in Egypt—it just came to me—that I could get the kind of density I wanted in the work.”
August 31, 2020
The Account Keeper
A woman dozes off as she updates her account books. Carefully defined horizontals (the desktop and wainscoting) contrast with verticals (the cabinet door, the pillars adorning the desk front), to create a carefully structured composition. The paired inkwells on the table echo the spheres on the map, and the bowls on the shelf are seen in both profile and full-interior views, all suggesting deliberate planning rather than casual observation. Such conscious order is in risk of collapse since the ledgers seem on the verge of toppling to the floor. The painting was undoubtedly intended to invite reflection, although we don’t know whether this woman represents a widow struggling to make ends meet, an elderly woman evaluating her life, or the sin of sloth.
August 30, 2020
Still Life revels in the textures of translucent grapes and fuzz of peach skin. The unadorned background emphasizes the delicate silhouette of grape leaves and tendrils. The bee and caterpillar add a sense of the momentary to an otherwise seemingly timeless theme. These details draw us closer to the image, increasing our sense of intimacy with it by inviting careful observation.
This work is one of the earliest still life paintings made in the United States. The artist, John Johnston, worked in his father’s engraving and decorative painting business. He served in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War (1775–1783) and was injured and imprisoned by the British for over a year before returning to Boston to open his own studio.
August 29, 2020
Irises and Eight-Fold Bridge
This Rinpa-school masterpiece depicts luxuriant irises along a zigzag bridge. The flowers are shown in stages of bloom while the flat surfaces of the bridge are done in a technique known as tarashikomi, where ink and colors are applied one over another to create pooled colors and blurred edges. Sakai Hôitsu’s focused view highlights the brilliant blues and white accents of the blossoms, the bright greens of the leaves, and the mottled browns of the bridge. Gold leaf represents the water under the bridge. The painted silk panels are separately mounted with boldly designed paper that has gold and silver sprinkled in patterns to suggest flowing water.
August 28, 2020
Disc for Armor, Chest or Back Plate
The design on this armor features a fierce wolf-like beast that fills the space, bares its huge teeth and darts its tongue out like fire. Its tail terminates in a serpent’s head that has large ears; its legs end in huge, three-talon claws. Bold armorial decorations, probably originally painted in bright, simple colors, would have struck fear in enemy soldiers. The disc is one of three bronze discs in the Museum’s collection that were hammered with remarkable repoussé decoration and may have been the central elements of a set of body armor or shield bosses, the strong outward-projecting covers mounted in the center of shields. Each disc was affixed to a leather or wooden substructure with a series of large decorative rivets that embellished the circumference.
August 27, 2020
Camaret, Moonlight and Fishing Boats
In this atmospheric nocturnal scene, Maximilien Luce painted the fishing port of Camaret in Brittany in the far west of France. The artist emphasizes a sense of geometric structure by repeating the diagonal lines of the boats while using a palette of blues and violets to offset the intense yellow of the moon. Luce turned to Pointillism as a technique in 1887 and became a prominent figure in this group of neo-Impressionists who meticulously built up their canvases with thousands of dots and flecks of paint.
August 26, 2020
Sharecropper reveals Elizabeth Catlett’s lifelong concern for the marginalized and the dignity of women. Vivid markings create this anonymous woman’s weathered skin, textured white hair, and broad-brimmed straw hat. Fatigue is evident in her eyes, and a makeshift safety pin holds her lightweight jacket closed. She represents the many sharecroppers who rented land in an agricultural system that Catlett felt kept thousands of African Americans in a cycle of poverty. By focusing on the enduring strength of poor laborers, Catlett hoped to “find a voice to speak for people who do not have one.” In 1946, Catlett moved to Mexico City, Mexico. There, she worked with the People’s Graphic Workshop, a printmaking collective dedicated to using art to promote social change.
August 25, 2020
The Greyhounds of the Comte de Choiseul
Gustave Courbet spent the summer of 1866 in Deauville on the Normandy coast of France as a guest of the young Comte de Choiseul. While he was there, the artist painted this commissioned portrait of his host’s two greyhounds. Courbet emphasized the elegant appearance and high breed of the dogs by portraying them from below, as if they were looking down on the viewer.
August 24, 2020
Zenobia in Chains
The dignity of this figure’s profile, with her head held high, and the intricate details of her ancient dress testify to Harriet Hosmer’s sophisticated carving abilities. Zenobia ruled Palmyra (present day Syria) for six years after her husband’s death in AD 267. She conquered Egypt and reigned until Roman forces overpowered her armies and captured her. Emperor Aurelian marched her in chains as part of his triumphal procession through Rome.
Hosmer, one of a group of 19th century female sculptors working in Rome, held strong feminist beliefs. She saw in Zenobia an embodiment of a woman’s ability to move beyond the constraints placed on her. Zenobia’s bearing stresses her strength rather than victimization. As Hosmer wrote, “I have tried to make her too proud to exhibit passion or emotion of any kind; not subdued, though a prisoner; but calm, grand, and strong within herself.”
August 23, 2020
Enthroned Virgin and Child
The seated Virgin Mary assumes a rigid pose that echoes the shape of her chair, making her a throne for her son. Sermons and religious writings of the 11th and 12th centuries describe Mary as the “Throne of Wisdom” or the “Throne of Solomon”. The latter alludes to the Old Testament king known for wisdom. During a later period, a chamber was carved into the figure’s right shoulder to serve as a container for relics. Although insect damage and structural repairs are evident throughout this work, the shallow cascading drapery folds on the chest and at the Virgin’s feet make this a superior example of French medieval sculpture.
August 22, 2020
This colorful, mural-sized canvas depicts Nickerson Gardens in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles. Artist Kerry James Marshall’s family lived there for two years after moving from Birmingham, Alabama. Marshall created Watts 1963 as part of his Garden Project, a series of five paintings that considers the irony of garden-named housing projects in Los Angeles and Chicago. The only autobiographical work of the series, Watts 1963 illustrates the artist at age eight, with his brother and sister. The children are placed under a festive banner carried by bluebirds of happiness bearing Alabama’s first state motto: “Here We Rest.” This painting reflects both the early optimism of the housing projects and the conditions of poverty, despair, and violence that eventually arose.
August 21, 2020
Old Homestead Connecticut
Cool, bright moonlight bathes the Selden homestead, built before the Revolutionary War (1775–1783). The large tree—as old as the house—casts its long shadow over the buildings, as the stars in the clear sky twinkle through its wide, protective branches. The homestead is located in Hadlyme, Connecticut, only 10 miles from where Willard Metcalf spent his summers painting as a member of the well‑known art colony in Old Lyme.
August 20, 2020
Plate with Design of Arabic Inscription in Kufic Script
Painted in the long, elegant strokes of Kufic script, this plate’s inscription is among the most beautiful examples of calligraphy from the early Islamic period. The elegant inscription decrees that “Planning before work protects you from regret.” The plate is one of a group of vessels that admonish the owners and their guests to be assiduous, careful, and virtuous in simple yet profound mottoes by which one might live a good life. The white slip body on which the calligraphy appears is related to Chinese porcelains and stonewares imported to Baghdad, the seat of power and commerce in the early Islamic world. The white slip, or liquefied clay, was painted over the surface of the vessel to suggest coveted Eastern porcelains. Applying ornamental calligraphy to the expansive white surface created designs that were bold and appealing.
August 19, 2020
A lush bouquet of flowers is the focal point of this ornamental tabletop. The floral design is composed of small pieces of wood stained with dyes and fitted together like a jigsaw puzzle (zoom in). This technique, called marquetry, was a specialty of Parisian craftsman Joseph Cremer, whose signature is engraved among the scrolling stems and leaves.
A New York cabinetmaker imported the marquetry panel and incorporated it into this painted and gilded table made for an unknown American client. This extravagant object was intended for use in a formal interior to display ceramics, small bronze sculptures, or other precious artworks.
August 18, 2020
Chief-Style Blanket, Second Phase
In this blanket, charcoal-gray bars and dashes float on a red ground, establishing massive patterned bands that balance against the dominant white-and-black stripes. This type of textile captivated 19th-century Native peoples from the Plains and Mountain West, who valued these striking blankets not only for their unusual form and materials, but also because they originated far away, as is often the case with luxury items. Diné peoples traded blankets like this one with neighbors in the Pueblos of Pecos and Taos, centers for Native trade networks. Starting in the 1820s, American traders also transported blankets from the Southwest to a series of commercial forts across the Plains.
By the late 19th century, when the railway brought waves of travelers to the Southwest territories, these blankets circulated in the developing national market for Native art. Thomas Dozier, an art and curio dealer based in the rail town of Española, New Mexico, displayed this blanket at the St. Louis World’s Fair in 1904.
August 17, 2020
Permelia Redmon Wheeler (1816-1881)
Permelia Wheeler gestures gracefully to the rose pinned to her bodice; its color is echoed in her book. The palette of pinks and blues, and the elegant patterns and curves throughout the portrait, establish a unified, delicate tone. Permelia’s sister, Lucinda, created both this image and its companion portrait of Permelia’s husband, Charles Wheeler (see image above).
Permelia and Lucinda’s family had moved from Kentucky to St. Charles, Missouri, where they owned land next to Linden Wood School for Girls, now Lindenwood University. The Wheeler portraits reveal typical signs of a self‑taught artist, such as inconsistencies in anatomy, perspective, and shading. Nevertheless, their refined charm and competence suggest Lucinda may have developed her natural ability through study at the nearby school, which offered art instruction—a rare opportunity for a woman at that time. Permelia’s grandson donated both portraits to the Museum.
August 16, 2020
Chrysanthemums and Autumnal Plants
This screen features chrysanthemums (kiku in Japanese) and autumnal plants (akikusa, literally “autumnal grasses”) against a gold background enlivened with golden clouds. The chrysanthemums are shown in three distinct colors: white, orange, and red. The petals of the white chrysanthemums were painted in a raised technique called moriage. The white-flowering variety of the bush clover (shirohagi; Lespedeza japonica) in the lower right corner, a favorite motif among Japanese poets since ancient times, is associated with melancholy and unrequited love. Blue Chinese bellflowers (kikyō; Platycodon grandiflorus) also animate the lower right while clumps of delicate Japanese silver grass (susuki; Miscanthus sinensis) emerge from behind the chrysanthemums at the back. Together, the bush clover, Chinese bellflower, and Japanese silver grass are three of the so-called “seven grasses of autumn” (aki no nanakusa) and reinforce the seasonal theme. At the lower left corner is a round I’nen seal impressed in red. Tawaraya Sōtatsu (1570–1643), one of the founders of the Rinpa school, first used this seal, and it continued to be used by successive artists in his workshop. This screen was the first Japanese painting to enter the Museum’s collection in 1920.
August 15, 2020
The Basket of Fruit
Pierre Bonnard represents a basket of apples and pears within a geometrical framework created by the diagonals, horizontals, and verticals of a tabletop. Bonnard wrestled with the complexities of white as a color throughout his career; here, the nuanced pale tones of the wall and tablecloth serve as a counterpoint to the brighter color accents of the fruit. Bonnard was a founding member of the Nabis group of painters who emphasized the importance of decorative pattern making in their compositions.
August 14, 2020
Betalo Rubino, Dramatic Dancer
Confident brushstrokes and bold color, as seen here, are hallmarks of Robert Henri’s best work. A reviewer commented, “one is struck immediately with the strength of the artist’s color, and if one may say it, the daring of it.”
Henri was captivating as a teacher and painter. He advocated his students search for subjects in the city streets, which were teeming with the vitality of working-class and immigrant crowds. Henri lectured, “What we need is an art that expresses the spirit of the people of today.” The flamboyant persona of Betalo Rubino, a Spanish dancer living in New York City, was a perfect fit for Henri’s dramatic palette.
August 13, 2020
Floral Still Life with Shells
Flowers that bloom for a very short time and exotic shells arouse the sensual pleasures of sight, smell, and touch. Fifteen separate blossoms represent twelve different species in this still life (zoom in). Balthasar van der Ast is credited with inventing the type of flower painting that included shells, and this early example is so exact that specialists can identify specific varieties. These blossoms, however, do not flower at the same time, reminding us that this seemingly realistic depiction is actually a lovely contrivance only possible in the painter’s fantasy realm.
August 12, 2020
Paul Klee shows a bird in flight with a tiny head, deep red neck, and wide outstretched wings rendered in sweeping veils of color. The artist associated birds and their free movement with detachment from earthly concerns; he even compared them to angels. Klee used the coarser, reverse side of a commercially prepared canvas, contrasting its rough surface with thin, translucent paint glazes. Inspired by the drawings of children, Klee explored the unconscious as a means to access primal artistic impulses
August 11, 2020
Tea Table, from the Dining Room of the Hôtel Guimard, Paris, France
Nature was the primary source of inspiration for the French architect Hector Guimard, who animated his designs with abstract clusters of buds, unfurling plant forms, and writhing tendrils. Guimard sought a new mode of expression that broke from historical styles. Rather than applying ornament as separate decorative elements, he worked like a sculptor, fusing structure and ornament, often creating linear whiplash contours that conveyed movement. During the art nouveau period, architects worked in a variety of materials, designing not only entire buildings and architectural ornaments but their interiors and furnishings as well (see historical image above).
August 10, 2020
Standing Male Cupbearer
The large inlaid eyes of this diminutive votive statue are meant to capture the attention of the gods. Statues such as this have been found in temples and were believed to have their own life force. They functioned as an active substitute for the dedicator, whose name was often inscribed along the shoulder. Many other examples of this type of statue clasp their hands together in a gesture of prayer, but this example stands out because it holds a small bowl of lapis lazuli, a valuable blue stone. The bowl likely represents the act of dedicating a liquid offering, called a libation. Similar statues have been excavated from temples throughout the ancient Near East.
August 9, 2020
A lustrous finish emphasizes the mahogany wood grain that artist Elizabeth Catlett beautifully incorporated into Seated Woman. The figure’s rounded body and firmly placed legs convey confidence and stability. A sense of naturalism merges perfectly with a simplified, abstracted form reminiscent of African masks and Mexican sculpture. Catlett, an African American artist who lived her adult life in Mexico, greatly respected these two artistic traditions. Catlett felt affirmative representations, such as Seated Woman, could support social change because they allow underrepresented people to see themselves depicted in art. Female subjects are predominant throughout Catlett’s work. She was moved by “Black beauty, not the female nudes of the European artists, but the women of the African wood carvers and the pre-Hispanic stone carvers.”
August 8, 2020
Saint Louis in 1846
Leafy green trees frame this view of the bustling St. Louis riverfront. Numerous steamboats docked near warehouses attest to the city’s status as a center of commerce in the mid-19th century. One steamboat, positioned at mid-river, bears the city’s name on its paddle wheel (see detail above). There have been many ships named after the city over the years, including many naval ships. The Mayor of St. Louis declared today USS St. Louis Day in honor of the newest combat ship to join the Navy’s operating fleet. Across the river, a wagon train bound for Oregon has set up camp, perhaps waiting for a ferry to St. Louis. Though born in England, Henry Lewis lived in St. Louis for a number of years and made several trips along the Mississippi River, documenting the scenery.
August 7, 2020
An Island in the Lagoon with a Gateway and a Church
Seemingly a painting of a specific spot on the Venetian lagoon, this picture is actually a fanciful confection composed of elements that Canaletto sketched during several walking tours near Venice. The painter has combined the lagoon with buildings from nearby Padua and a bell tower from yet a third location to create this subtly balanced poetic grouping of simple structures. A specialist in views of Venice, Canaletto sold his paintings to English travelers eager for mementos of their Italian trips.
August 6, 2020
Driftwood on the Bagaduce
The dry branches of driftwood and harsh black outlines give this image an angular and frenetic energy. Artist Marsden Hartley reduced nature to essential forms and a stark color palette. In 1937, Hartley returned to Maine, his native state and the location of the Bagaduce River represented in this painting. Hartley asserted, “I wish to declare myself the painter from Maine.” His subsequent works, like this one, explored the landscape, seas, and natural elements that characterize the state.
August 5, 2020
Isot Kivet Textile
The clipped curves of these monumental black dots lend an organic edge to this highly graphic textile. Designer Maija Isola created this simple but striking design with paper cut-outs, looking to the irregular shape of stones—kivet in Finnish—for inspiration. Isola’s outsized, abstract patterns helped catapult Finnish textile and fashion company Marimekko to international fame in the 1960s.
August 4, 2020
Bright pastel colors and repeated geometric shapes create a dynamic composition; triangular planes transform into vertical stripes from left to right. The title alludes to the photographic technique of double exposure, which combines two separate images to construct a new work. To create his colors and crisp lines, James Little painted with a heated mixture of beeswax and raw pigments, developing a version of the painting technique called encaustic first used by ancient Egyptians and Greeks (learn more).
August 3, 2020
At the Suresnes Ball
A man in an infantry uniform dances with a taller woman, the splayed fingers of his white-gloved hand sharply illuminated against her green skirt. Three fellow soldiers observe in the background; the tallest may be a self-portrait of André Derain who painted this work during a year of military service. The artist takes a humorous approach to his subject, presenting the dance as an awkward social ritual. This early picture is notable for its areas of bold, flat color, anticipating Derain’s experiments with Fauvism.
August 2, 2020
This cradle features allover beadwork with repeating geometric patterns organized around mirrored triangles and diamonds. The focal point of each beaded design gives way to a profusion of silk ribbons, large beads, and brass bells. This approach to materials exemplifies the historic Plains aesthetics of excess, where artists created powerful assemblages using diverse textures, colors, and objects that produce sound.
Cradles swaddle babies tightly and furnish a secure place to keep children while adult relatives work. At its back, this cradle attaches to a wooden framework that provides structural support for mounting to hooks or resting against vertical surfaces. Today, many Tsistsistas/Suhtai families cherish cradleboards as heirlooms.
August 1, 2020
With gold hues and blue accents, a whirling design of fantastic creatures flanks a central coat of arms representing the Spanish nobleman Fernando Ruiz de Castro, (1548-1601). The patterns reflect the wall decorations from the ancient Palace of Nero, unearthed in Rome in the late 15th century.
July 31, 2020
Woman’s Tubular Skirt (kain sarung) with Design of the “Thousand Boxes” (kotak seribu) Motif
A three-part panel known as the kepala, or head section, occupies the central portion of this textile. This area contains triangles placed in rows facing each other and narrow vertical rectangular bands flanking the triangles (zoom in). The batik’s beautifully worked diagonal lattice pattern on either side of the head features animal and floral motifs. This intricate design testifies to the precise waxing skills of batik artists from Indramayu, a city on the north coast of West Java province. The fine diagonal dotting pattern on the background is called cocohan and resulted from a block with fine metal pins piercing the waxed ground before dyeing (learn more). The application of gold leaf across most of the textile likely indicates this garment was intended for a bride to wear at her wedding. The narrow band at the top has no gold decoration, because it would not be visible when the garment is rolled and tucked at the waist. Gold was expensive and was not applied where it would rub off.
July 30, 2020
Dog and Serpent
In a rocky landscape, a short dog bares its teeth, ready to pounce on a fanged serpent. Artist Rufino Tamayo modeled this native Mexican hairless dog after a type of Mesoamerican, canine shaped funerary vessel (see example above). Spending extended time in New York City during World War II (1939–1945), Tamayo became keenly aware of this conflict, in which the United States had become involved (read more). This impending struggle between two wild animals represents an allegory for the unprecedented violence then occurring in Europe.
July 29, 2020
Woman Standing near a Pond
A simply dressed woman passes through a country landscape. Luminous, still waters reflect an atmospheric sky, suggesting the serene spirituality the artist perceived in nature. Edward Mitchell Bannister, an African American, stated that the discrimination he experienced because of his heritage multiplied his artistic struggles tenfold. Despite such obstacles, Bannister became one of the premier landscape artists of his day, earning a bronze medal for another oil painting at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition in 1876.
July 28, 2020
Arria and Paetus
Arria (left) is shown visiting her husband Paetus who had joined an uprising against the emperor Claudius and was later imprisoned. She reminds him that suicide is the honorable option for a Roman prisoner. Arria will eventually demonstrate by plunging the knife into her own breast, saying, “See, Paetus, it does not hurt.” The painting has focused on the moment just before Arria inflicts the wound. This obscure story was the sort of subject used by artists like François-André Vincent to demonstrate their mastery of elements of classicism, evident in their use of profile poses, stage-like settings, and carefully defined forms.
July 27, 2020
Two-Handled Cup and Cover
Covered with rich embellishments, including cherubs, grapevines, goats, bees, and shells, this opulent object was intended for ceremonial display. Its decoration celebrates Bacchus, the ancient Roman god of wine. The sheer exuberance of the forms, most notable in the arching figures that almost break free of the cup’s surface, exemplifies the joyous revelry of 18th-century rococo art. This lavish cup and cover were cast in silver and then finished by adding texture to the grape leaves, the goats’ fur, and the other ornamentation. Although based on forms in the everyday world, the final ensemble is definitely not something found in nature.
July 26, 2020
Fresh News (Men and Machines)
In this image, taken from a photograph and abstracted (learn more), two men in suits supervise a new kind of commercial printing press, the Heidelberg Rotaspeed. Painting in large patches of flat, primary colors, artist Rosalyn Drexler omitted any clues to the figures’ identities, conflating these men with the machine they operate.
In her Men and Machines series, Drexler demystified the promises of 1960s technological progress and corporate capitalism. Exposing lingering anxieties of the Cold War era, such as the loss of human agency in the face of industrial advances, Drexler’s paintings undercut the false confidence of postwar American society in affluence and worldwide leadership.
July 25, 2020
View on the Upper Mississippi
An expanse of glassy, unruffled water and silvery evening light evoke a seemingly impenetrable stillness. Though a group of Native Americans push their canoes off a sandy spit of land (see details above), they are dwarfed by the massive scale of the outcropping behind them. Their movements carry no sound, and only the birds in the foreground appear capable of breaking the silence.
This landscape depicts Lake Pepin, located along the widest part of the Mississippi River at a point that is now south of Minneapolis, Minnesota. The artist, John Frederick Kensett, made sketches of the site when he accompanied St. Louis businessman Pierre Chouteau Jr. on one of his trading expeditions.
July 24, 2020
This beautiful panel was made from thousands of feathers from blue-and-yellow macaws, painstakingly tied in overlapping rows to a cotton backing. The panel was found with dozens of others at a site in southern Peru, hundreds of miles from the macaw’s tropical habitat. The entire offering consisted of perhaps a million individual feathers. The function of these panels is not clear; they may have served as architectural decor, bringing the realm of the rainforest to an arid domain.
July 23, 2020
Anne Truitt painted horizontal bands of orange, fuchsia, blue, and lime green onto a rectangular column made of sanded plywood. Through her characteristic vertical forms, Truitt investigated the boundary between painting and sculpture. She described her freestanding painted objects as color “set free into three dimensions.” Inspired by the simple geometry of Barnett Newman’s paintings, Truitt applied elements of painting, such as composition and color, to her sculptural works. Truitt’s use of reductive, rectilinear forms associates her work with the minimalism art movement of the 1960s.
July 22, 2020
Painted vellum (goatskin), pewter inlay, and silk tassels are some of the unusual materials used for this highly original chair by the Italian architect and furniture designer Carlo Bugatti. The design also combines Japanese elements, such as painted grasses and an asymmetrical back, with clustered Middle Eastern columns and abstract inlays. Bugatti’s eclectic design is a very personal expression of the art nouveau movement from the turn of the 20th century.
July 21, 2020
Strong shades of red, yellow, blue, and white punctuate the scribble like vertical lines that fill this composition. Despite its abstraction, Twilight Sounds evokes a lived experience, possibly a crowd of active and noisy figures, milling about in the early evening as the sun has just slipped below the horizon. Norman Lewis compared his working process to the creativity and spontaneity of jazz composition, improvising and riffing off what had previously been laid down on the canvas. The energetic entanglements of the lines might mimic a saxophone climbing through a scale, joined by another instrument whose sounds weave through in red, and bass drum kicks that resonate the dark spaces.
July 20, 2020
Lake with Castle on a Hill
The dark tree silhouetted against the moonlight enhances the romantic drama of this isolated castle tower overlooking a lake. Joseph Wright of Derby also contrasted the glittery luminescence of the watery surface with the softer glow of the moonlit clouds. Justly famous for his ability to depict light, the artist was adept at capturing a range of effects, from the glow surrounding a volcano fire to the reflection of a gas lamp or, as here, the natural radiance of the moon. This painting was inspired by the artist’s fond recollections of a trip to Naples, Italy, in 1774.
July 19, 2020
Statuette of Lady Itef
Itef, whose name is inscribed on this sculpture’s base, stands at attention with her long, delicate arms held at her sides. Her voluptuous figure is accented by a gossamer linen dress, its wide straps covering her chest and shoulders. An enormous spiral wig associated with the goddess Hathor, popular in the Middle Kingdom, cascades down her back in undulating curls and frames her delicate face with two bound tresses that tuck behind her ears. During the Middle Kingdom women were rarely portrayed as individuals, and inscriptions were notoriously sloppy. Despite an inscription that identifies this female figure by a man’s name and a dedication from “his” mother, this is most likely a funerary sculpture commissioned by a mother for her daughter.
July 18, 2020
Golden and Blue Bolero
Bold strokes of red, orange, and yellow flicker across this man’s bolero vest and reflect in the shadows beneath his chin. The painting’s fiery, primary hues are at odds with its subject’s impassive expression. Walt Kuhn is renowned for his portraits of circus performers, as seen here. His figures are depicted frontally, holding a deadpan gaze contrary to their expected joyfulness. Though anonymous and mysterious, this man conveys a dignity and psychological presence often denied to itinerant performers.
July 17, 2020
Pair of Dolls
When outfitting these dolls, the artist miniaturized earlier garment styles. The cut of leggings, calico shirt, and breechclout, or loincloth, on the male doll were popular in the early- and mid-19th century. The female doll features a strap dress, which Anishinaabe women wore with increasing rarity by 1900. The abundance of fabric used here and on similar full-size dresses signaled the wearer’s great wealth, a message heightened by the multiple necklace strands.
Anishinaabe finery changed through the 19th century along with the character of diplomatic meetings and religious ceremonies, two principal occasions for wearing exquisite apparel. By recreating regalia from a more ideal past this artist subtly resisted external pressures for cultural reform.
July 16, 2020
Pair of Doors
This grand pair of doors most likely came from the convent of Santa Isabel in Toledo, Spain. The large doors would be opened only on special occasions, while the smaller sets of double doors in the lower half of each panel were for daily use. The inlaid design covering their surface is comprised of expanding and interlocking ten-pointed stars. Originally, the huge iron throw-bolts and studded rivets were covered with gilt decoration. These doors are a magnificent example of the style known as mudéjar, a term used to describe Spanish Muslims living under Christian rule. The intricate inlay on these doors, created from small pieces of wood pieced together in complex geometric shapes, is a technique originating in the Islamic world that remained popular in Spain for centuries after the political defeat of Muslim rulers. Such inlay was considered especially suitable for religious buildings of every persuasion because of its conspicuous expense and visual appeal.
July 15, 2020
Power Figure (nkisi nkondi)
. . . [T]he nganga pounds on the nkisi . . . to awaken it, that it should arise and go.
—BABUTIDI TIMOTIO, 1916
With alert eyes, head raised, and right arm thrust upward, this figure embodies the character of a hunter. Each iron blade or nail across the torso attests to specific moments when the nganga, a ritual specialist, called the figure into action or “to the hunt.” Directed by the nganga, the figure served purposes of healing, protection, or resolution on a client’s behalf. The figure’s white porcelain eyes, sensitively carved face, and mirrored belly emphasize the body’s spiritual power centers according to Kongo belief. These are also the sites where the nganga inserted plant, mineral, and other matter considered to be medicinal and powerful. The mirror, suggestive of the surface of water, evokes Kongo conceptualization of the ancestral realm.
July 14, 2020
Robert Delaunay’s Eiffel Tower represents this famed Parisian landmark, which was a symbol of modern technology in the early 20th century. The dark steel structure has been transformed into rich tones of yellow, orange, and lavender; the surrounding gardens are abstracted patterns of green and yellow. Influenced by fauvism, an art movement that championed the use of vivid colors, Delaunay affirmed that “everything is color in nature.” The artist used an aerial viewpoint, probably informed by his own background as an early aviator.
July 13, 2020
Number 3, 1950
In Number 3, Jackson Pollock layered multiple strands of paint to create an intricate web of interwoven colors. The result is an “all over” composition that prevents the eye from focusing on any single point. Three years earlier, Pollock first began to drip and splatter paint across unstretched canvas or fiberboard laid flat on his studio floor. Pollock’s creative breakthrough overturned the tradition of upright easel painting, a convention that had remained firmly established for five centuries.
July 12, 2020
Some reliquaries contained actual relics, the material remains of a saint, no matter how tiny, while others held a strip of linen (called a brandea) that had touched a relic and was believed to have the same power. By the 12th century, these receptacles sometimes were given the form of the relic they contained. The conical chamber cut into the core of this arm reliquary once contained a bone fragment of a saint’s arm. The fingers form a blessing gesture.
July 11, 2020
Dish with Foliated Rim and Design of Floral Scrolls
During the early 15th century, blue-and-white wares made at the imperial kilns of Jingdezhen, displayed a level of perfection in the whiteness of the porcelain body, elegant shapes, beautifully painted and pleasingly balanced designs, and smooth transparent glazes. The center of this dish is visually anchored by a lotus flower and surrounded by five seasonal blossoms (mallow, dianthus, camellia, lotus, and chrysanthemum), all on slender interlaced stems. On the lobed cavetto are twelve additional sprays of flowers. The foliated rim has a frieze of breaking waves, while the exterior is decorated with twelve detached floral and fruit sprays. The underglaze cobalt is of inky blue-black tone, with the so-called “heaped and piled” effect, a reference to the inkiness that results where the applied cobalt was oversaturated, as is characteristic of Yongle blue-and-white porcelains.
July 10, 2020
Still Life with a Basket of Fruit
Tendrils of grapevine playfully coil around a profusion of grapes, peaches, watermelon, plums, cherries, strawberries, an apple, and even a bird’s nest that cradles three delicate eggs. Miniscule dewdrops reward careful exploration. Artist Severin Roesen created this painting as a feast for the eyes. Hung in well-to-do parlors and dining rooms, paintings such as this celebrated the nation’s abundant natural resources, a source of pride and optimism for the future. Bountiful resources were especially appreciated in Williamsport, Pennsylvania, where the German-born artist worked. This “Lumber Capital of the World” produced 350 million board feet per day, creating more millionaires per capita than any other city in the mid-19th century. It was hard for those Americans, whose wealth was increasing so dramatically in the decades before the Civil War, to imagine that such resources could be depleted.
July 9, 2020
Cats abound on this enormous textile, occupying open space within and between other cats. Angular outlines of felines repeat in linear formation with remarkable consistency, but their forms are somewhat obscured by the overall geometry and rhythm. Cats best seen in the top and bottom horizontal borders express duality as two-bodied beings (read the blog). Follow the serrated outline of a cat’s back to see how its tail turns a corner and becomes the tail of another cat. This mantle does not show signs of frequent wear, which suggests it was made for the exclusive use of wrapping the dead prior to burial in the coastal desert.
July 8, 2020
St. Louisan Ashley Cooper stands with one hand on her hip in front of a vibrant floral backdrop that winds in front of and around her. Cooper’s pose is based on the stance of King Charles I of England in a 1633 portrait by Dutch painter Daniel Mytens I in the Museum’s collection (see image above). Artist Kehinde Wiley uses the long‑standing practice of portraiture to address absences and erasures of black individuals in European and American art history. In his paintings he replaces white figures depicted in historical artworks with images of contemporary African Americans, Africans, and people of the African diaspora. In 2017, Wiley visited neighborhoods in north St. Louis and Ferguson, Missouri, where he selected Cooper and other individuals to pose for paintings.
July 7, 2020
Edouard Manet represented his elderly friend, the painter Joseph Gall, absorbed in reading a large book. The ledge in the foreground serves as a barrier, establishing distance between the sitter and the viewer. The artist’s palette is muted and restrained. Although Manet never participated in any of the Impressionist exhibitions, he was closely associated with the group; his lively, inventive brushwork is evident in the sitter’s left hand, depicted with a few rapid and abstract brush marks (see details above).
July 6, 2020
This figure of a hippo was molded in faience, a crushed quartz glazed and fired at a relatively low temperature. Copper salts in the glaze impart the bright blue or blue-green color so characteristic of faience objects. Over the animal’s naturalistic shape, the craftsman painted lily plants that appear as a giant tattoo. Small sculptures of hippos such as this one were placed in tombs in ancient Egypt as reminders of the Egyptians’ love of hunting. Each of the sculpted hippo’s legs was ritually broken in order to render it harmless in the afterlife. In ancient Egypt herds of hippos were a constant threat to farmers’ fields. The first pharaohs hunted hippos in the marshes and eventually drove them far south into Upper Egypt. Hippos became associated with chaos, and the hunt for hippos became a metaphor for how the pharaohs of ancient Egypt could conquer evil.
July 5, 2020
The Church Supper
Townspeople eat supper, converse with friends, rest and feed table scraps to their pets in this depiction of a church social. James Baare Turnbull included a representation of himself at the right, leaning against a tree. Turnbull gained acclaim in the 1930s and 40s for his depictions of rural and small-town life in the Midwest, seen at the time as quintessentially American. In 1938 he was named Director of the St. Louis WPA Art Project and during WWII worked as an artist-correspondent for Life magazine.
The church depicted is St. Paul’s Lutheran Church, on the corner of Manchester and Ballas roads in Des Peres, Missouri. Long-time church members recall fondly the many Sunday afternoon picnic suppers, held outdoors because the church lacked a basement social hall. The steepled red brick church was built in 1867 and replaced in 1938 with the current church building (see images above). The smaller structure behind the church was the congregation’s school, a one-room schoolhouse built in 1883 and replaced in 1952 by their current school.
July 4, 2020
Buzz Aldrin and the U.S. Flag on the Moon
This color print was taken during the July 20, 1969 Apollo 11 landing on the moon, one of the most memorable events of the second half of the 20th century. Commander Neil Armstrong was tasked with documenting the moon walk, and took views of fellow astronaut Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin standing with the Eagle landing capsule and conducting scientific experiments (view more above). The most famous of these images shows Aldrin with the United States flag after it had been planted on the lunar surface. Since there are no air currents on the moon, the flag had to be stiffened with a rod to make it appear as if it were waving.
While untrained as a photographer, Armstrong quickly became adept at using a specially made Hasselblad camera that could be operated in outer space. He exposed several hundred negatives and the results are equally important as historic, scientific, and aesthetic statements.
July 3, 2020
Red, Orange, Orange on Red
A floating field of tangerine orange is bounded at the bottom by an area of acidic orange, and at the top by a line of red. Mark Rothko stained the canvas with several layers of thin pigment, creating an effect that evokes the shimmering luminosity of dawn or sunset. Rothko’s compositions employ the elegant simplicity of rectilinear forms to express human emotions the artist believed to be “tragic and timeless.”
July 2, 2020
The blue tones and loose brushwork of this painting typify Henry Ossawa Tanner’s most successful experiments with color composition and application of paint. Tanner, an African American artist, traveled to the Mediterranean region four times and these trips had a profound effect on his style and subject matter. During a 1912 trip to Tangier, Morocco, Tanner became fascinated with this gateway – the entrance to the casbah, or older native part of the city – and he proceeded to paint it from many perspectives and vantage points.
July 1, 2020
Reading the sculpted motifs on both sides of this club creates a complex visual game. At first glance, the head of the club takes the form of a face. However, closer looking reveals a multitude of additional faces. There is a face on the upper crest of the finial; two others form the pupils and irises of the eyes with radiating striations; a fourth face appears in place of the primary face’s nose; another is evident on the lower band. There is no specific Marquesan explanation of this interlocking imagery. However the Marquesan word atua, meaning both “eyes” and “ancestors,” suggests a striking interpretation for this proliferation of eyes and faces: The ancestors are watching.
June 30, 2020
The Artist’s Brother
By posing the boy looking over his shoulder and by angling his hat over his forehead, Elisabeth-Louise Vigée Le Brun achieves a lovely image of youthful bravado. The portrait—very likely the artist’s brother Etienne at the age of fifteen—is probably the one the artist described in her memoirs as “my brother in schoolboy’s dress.” She alludes to his interest in letters (he later became a celebrated writer) by including a sheaf of papers and a pen. The artist created this portrait when she was only eighteen.
June 29, 2020
Fly Whisk (chauri) with Design of Floral and Vegetal Motifs on the Handle
The ivory handle of this object has three separate parts: a tip shaped like a lotus bud, a tapering ropework shaft, and a cup-shaped mouthpiece. The upper portion of the shaft and the sides of the mouthpiece are carved with flowering irises and poppies, flanked by cypress trees. The mouthpiece is surmounted by a pierced double gallery of everted petals. The parts screw together to hold the individual whisk slivers, which are made of whale baleen (keratin-based filters from the mouths of baleen whales). Fly whisks were symbols of royal authority in both Hindu and Muslim courts in India; this one was made for the sophisticated Mughal court. It was probably crafted in Murshidabad, which served as the Mughal capital of Bengal and had specialized workshops for ivory and woodworking.
June 28, 2020
Pheasantry in the Forest of Compiègne
In this atmospheric moonlight scene, Théodore Rousseau depicted a pheasantry, or pheasant farm. Flecks of yellow paint at the bottom right suggest a pheasant in flight. The silhouetted forms of trees create a flat, surface pattern while depth in the space is created by the detail of a cow drinking from a pond at back left. Rousseau painted this gestural work when he was only 21, demonstrating his early artistic talent. Due to his skill, Rousseau was considered the leading landscape painter of the Barbizon School, an artistic colony southeast of Paris.
June 27, 2020
Shell and Old Shingle VI
A study in tone and form, this painting’s abstract shapes barely suggest the white shell in front of a gray shingle that the artist propped on a table. The work is the sixth in a series of seven paintings of the same subject, each more abstract than the one before. Georgia O’Keeffe wrote: “Finally I went back to the shingle and shell…the shingle just a dark space that floated off the top of the painting, the shell just a simple white shape under it. They fascinated me so that I forgot what they were except that they were shapes together — singing shapes.”
June 26, 2020
Worn on a dancer’s forehead, this carving featured additional components that moved. Sea lion whiskers extended from the crown and waved with the dancer’s motion. Additionally, a veil-like panel of swan skin or canvas streamed from back. This panel covered the dancer’s head and shoulders, as well as a mechanical apparatus that distributed eagle down.
The carving represents a raven. With outstretched wings, the raven grasps a ball—which represents light—in its mouth. This frontlet illustrates the key moment in a Native Northwest Coast story when the trickster bird steals the sun, moon, and stars to illuminate the world. When a dancer wore the frontlet, abalone-shell inlays and mirrored eyes reflected firelight. This effect lent the carving a sense of animism and demonstrated the narrative of raven bringing light.
June 25, 2020
The Fairman Rogers Four-In-Hand (A May Morning in the Park)
This painting was completed in grisaille—in black and white—for reproduction in a horse carriage coaching manual. The horses’ legs are depicted as stopped in their movement, but oddly the carriage wheels are not. Thomas Eakins consulted newly invented stop motion photographs to accurately depict the leg positions, something greatly debated before photography. Eakins’s concern for uncompromising, scientific realism brought him little success. As one reviewer noted, “the result may be scientifically true; but it is . . . artistically false. [One wishes] Mr. Eakins had denied himself the pleasure of a fascinating little experiment, and had painted his horses in the time worn way.”
June 24, 2020
Portrait of a Woman
This portrait of a married woman displays dazzling technique in the freely painted details of her lace collar, and cuffs— signs of her family’s prosperity. Very little can be seen of her surroundings, merely the suggestion of a corner to the right and her shadow cast upon the wall. As a result, she is moved back into the fictional realm of the painting, making her presence seem less assertive. Frans Hals, a leading 17th-century Dutch painter, made more conservative portraits during the 1650s, limiting his use of color and controlling the extraordinarily sketchy brushstrokes for which he is famous. This work was intended to hang together with an image of the woman’s husband (see above), a portrait that is in the collection of The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art in Kansas City.
June 23, 2020
Palisades, from “The Hudson River Portfolio”
A steamboat full of tourists gliding along the Hudson River gives a sense of scale to this view of the dramatic bluffs known as the Palisades. These cliffs rise as high as 550 feet above the water of the river only a few miles north of New York City. This image serves as reminder to city dwellers of nature’s wonders that lay just beyond their doors. After its initial release, The Hudson River Portfolio quickly made its way into American popular culture. The images inspired an upsurge of illustrated guidebooks that were pervasive in mid-19th century America. The sketches were even reproduced on the surfaces of dinnerware—Staffordshire Pottery’s Picturesque Views—which was sold commercially. The portfolio was so popular that a second edition was published between 1828 and 1833 with a run that numbered in the thousands.
June 22, 2020
Clustered networks of blue, green, red, black, and ochre converge in this canvas as if drawn together by a gravitational force. Room 112 represents Philip Guston’s distinctive approach to Abstract Expressionism. After leaving his teaching post at Washington University in St. Louis in 1947, Guston set aside figural painting to pursue gestural abstraction, as seen here. Guston would later grow disenchanted with abstraction, eventually returning to representational imagery.
June 21, 2020
Father & Mother—Tintype
Walter Ellison depicts his parents, Sidney Ellison (1875–1926) and Rosa Lee Ellison (1882–1964). Throughout their 30-year marriage, Sidney worked as a laborer on farms and railroads to support his family. In the mid-1920s, the Ellison family moved from Georgia to Chicago, joining the millions of African Americans who moved from south to north as part of the Great Migration. Sadly, Sidney passed away soon after their arrival in this new city. Walter Ellison remembered his father with this portrait, painted 13 years after Sidney’s death and based on an earlier photograph of his parents.
Ellison painted not just a portrait but also a comment on the inequities of African American life. Though his parents are tastefully dressed in their Sunday best, they seem oblivious to the decay and disrepair around them. The carpet is torn and the studio backdrop sags to the point of nearly draping their shoulders. This dilapidated environment seems at odds with his parents’ upright character. Rather, it is symbolic of the often unjust and inequitable conditions faced by many African Americans.
June 20, 2020
Lip Plug in the Form of an Eagle Head (teocuitcuauhtentetl)
With its exquisitely detailed feather arrangement around the head, prominent eyes, and menacing claw-like beak, this beautifully cast gold eagle head was worn by a warrior preparing for battle or ritual ceremony. The labret was inserted through a hole in the lower lip, with the radiance of the metal reflecting the light of the sun.
Metalworking in central Mexico was probably introduced to the Mixtecs as a fully developed art from South America sometime in the 13th century. The neighboring Aztecs purchased such objects from their neighbors to use in sacred and political rituals; they called such objects teocuitlacuauhtentetl.
June 19, 2020
In 1979, the African American artist Allan Rohan Crite explained his preference for the kind of everyday neighborhood scene like Douglass Square. He said, “I was living here [Boston] in the South End with a lot of black people around me. I was painting them as I saw them as human beings, just ordinary human beings, having ordinary lives. In the twenties and thirties the image of black people was distorted, to put it mildly. We had an . . .entertainer or a traumatic figure out of the ghetto or a social problem. But the ordinary human being who goes to the store, comes home, washes dishes, all the homely things—he just wasn’t registering. I felt it important for me to present that life of black people as part of the Christian dignity of man.”
June 18, 2020
Box with Design of Auspicious Animals, Plants, and Flowers
This box is decorated in the typical Korean technique known as hwagak (flowery horn). Ox-horn pieces are flattened through soaking and heating and then glued onto a wooden core. Colorful designs, including most of the sipjangsaeng (Ten Symbols of Longevity), were painted on the underside of the transparent ox-horn. The most important motifs are on the lid: two dragons, two phoenixes, and two cranes carrying the fungus of immortality, all shown amidst multicolored clouds. The box was likely made as a wedding gift for a high-ranking lady of the Korean aristocracy, who would have used it to store her jewelry, hair ornaments, and finger rings in jade or amber.
June 17, 2020
Eames Storage Unit (ESU)
Charles and Ray Eames are among the most important industrial designers of the 20th century. This storage unit epitomizes the Eameses’ goal for most of their work-to-design mass-produced furnishings to be beautiful and affordable to the average consumer. The Eames Storage Units (ESU) are a system of lightweight modular cabinets and desks with prefabricated, interchangeable parts: shelves, perforated metal backs, panels, and sliding doors and drawers, all in various materials and color combinations. No attempt was made to conceal the structural elements. To simplify shipping, this cabinet with steel-angle corner legs was originally conceived as knockdown furniture. Design as the rearrangement of industrial parts was a constant that the Eameses executed in varying scales throughout their work. In concept and aesthetic this unit is a small-scale version of their famous 1949 Case Study House in Pacific Palisades, California.
June 16, 2020
Amphora with Nike and Youth
The spotlight technique—the use of a single figure featured on either side of a vessel—takes advantage of the round form of this amphora. The viewer must look at both sides (see above) to understand the full story. Here, the goddess Nike, or Victory, flies through the air presenting a musical instrument called a cithara (a type of fancy, large concert lyre) to present to the young man standing on the other side. Taken together we can interpret this scene as a celebration of the youth’s victory at a musical competition. The spotlight technique was favored by this artist, called the Berlin Painter after the city in which his style was first identified. The Berlin Painter represents a high point of ancient painting due to the precise draftsmanship and fine attention to detail especially, in the ears and eyelashes.
June 15, 2020
Louis XIV, King of France
This bronze bust presents Louis XIV (reigned 1643–1715) as a monarch of stately presence and imperial demeanor. The combination of turned head, diagonal sweep of fabric folds, and intricate hairstyle make for an assertive and dynamic likeness. Louis XIV established the court at Versailles outside of Paris in the 1680s, making it a model for the splendor and elegance that defined princely palaces into the following century. François Girardon created several portraits of the king and succeeded in capturing a commanding individual.
June 14, 2020
Hear Expert Commentary
Simon Kelly, PhD
Curator of Modern and Contemporary Art
Saint Louis Art Museum
This impressive painting highlights the rich and warm palettes characteristic of Degas’ late work. The red of the dress of the working milliner on the left, the orange of her chair, the red-brown of her assistant’s ensemble, and the copper hair of both women all merge together to create a symphony of color.
By this time, Degas was also exploring the possibilities of abstraction. He represents the forms of the women as flat masses of color outlined against the back wall that provides little spatial recession. The Saint Louis Art Museum x-rayed the painting and we found that Degas originally gave a frilly detail to the white apron of the milliner holding the hat. He subsequently painted this over, creating a more generalized color mass, further indicating his interest in abstraction.
It is perhaps no coincidence, a picture such as this, held a deep appeal for the great modern painter Henri Matisse, an important collector of Degas’ work. Beyond its formal qualities, Degas’ painting is a testament to the artistry of the millinery profession in Paris at the turn of the 20th century, highlighting as it the does, the careful focus of the milliner as she works to attach ostrich plumes to the crown of a wide-brimmed straw hat.
Milliners was acquired by the Saint Louis Art Museum in 2007 for the very substantial sum of $10,000,000, the largest purchase in the Museum’s history. It is Degas’ last oil painting on the theme of millinery and its significance is further indicated by the fact that Degas produced several related studies, including drawings in charcoal and a full-scale pastel.
Milliners was painted during the heyday of the Parisian millinery industry. But with the passing of conservation laws and changes in fashion after World War I to much simpler hats, notably the cloche, the millinery industry went into decline. Millinery remains a marginal presence in Paris today with only 41 milliners listed in the Parisian yellow pages. This painting, however, harks back toa time when milliners and their creations were an integral part of everyday Parisian life.
Two milliners in white aprons decorate a straw hat: the woman to the right holds feathers and flowers while her companion pins them in place. Edgar Degas regularly portrayed the theme of milliners and empathized with their creative abilities (hear more above). In earlier works, he used the American artist Mary Cassatt as a model, but in this late painting, his sitters have become abstract and generalized. This abstraction is evident in the flat areas of color and the line of green curling around the women’s heads.
June 13, 2020
Incense Burner in the Form of a Bird
This life-sized sculpture of a bird is an incense burner. A small drawer within its chest opens to hold incense. Once lit, the smoke would emanate from pierced holes in its neck. The incised patterns on the wings are a mixture of realistic feathers and interlocking circles, a combination that stems from an aesthetic appreciation of geometric patterns rather than from a desire to avoid life-like realism. Before the late 18th century, all Islamic art objects were functional in some way.
June 12, 2020
Hear Expert Commentary
Curator of Modern and Contemporary Art
Saint Louis Art Museum
Detached III gives permanent concrete form to the empty space within a humble, prefabricated garden shed of a type available in any home improvement store. Whiteread has spoken about her aim “to mummify the air” within architectural structures. When seen from a distance, the sculpture is very minimalist in design. Yet, close up, one can clearly see the imprint of the shed’s wood grain, lending the work a greater sense of intimacy. The imprints of door handles and windows also suggest a latent human presence. Whiteread’s choice of title, Detached III, in fact, relates to her interest in the idea of the shed as a space where artists and writers have gone to find solitary retreat.
Detached III is an example of what Whiteread has called her “shy sculptures,” because she has generally sited them remotely and inconspicuously, often requiring a journey to visit. This sculpture is located alone on the southwest side of the building to reflect this intention. In order to make her sculpture, Whiteread and her team lifted up the shed on all sides on supports and then sprayed its interior from below with liquid concrete. The sculpture is therefore hollow, although with a steel framework, it still weighs the significant amount of 12,125 pounds or 5,500 kilograms. It is a unique piece and relates to a small series of sculptures by the artist that represent other prefabricated sheds.
Detached III was purchased by the Museum in 2017 and complements the Museum’s existing collection of sculpture by prominent British artists such as Henry Moore, Antony Caro, and Andy Goldsworthy.
Detached III gives concrete form to the empty or negative space within an everyday, prefabricated backyard shed (see and hear more above). This sculpture sums up the signature working process of prominent English artist Rachel Whiteread, which she has described as “mummifying the air.” Whiteread captures the intricate wood grain imprint of the shed’s door and sides, as well as the impression of windows. The work’s title alludes to the artist’s view of the garden shed as a space for quiet thought and reclusive study.
June 11, 2020
Reliquary Guardian Figure
The bright, inset eyes of this figure suggest the ability to see past the earthly realm. The Fang attached figures such as this, with the feet dangling down, to the lids of cylindrical containers that preserved the skulls and bones of important ancestors. These figures symbolically evoke the ancestor and guard the relics within. These sculptures may reflect Fang ideas about death and rebirth in the use of infantile forms—such as a high, bulging forehead and shortened limbs—combined with more mature characteristics.
Spiritually empowered by the bones and relics, these reliquary figures could also be placed in and around the houses of the extended family for protection. Such mobile reliquaries were an innovation developed to meet the needs of a migrant community, as villages periodically relocated due to the vagaries of the difficult forest environment.
June 10, 2020
Portrait of a Lady, probably Camilla Martelli de’Medici
This exquisite ensemble indicates the sitter was a woman of wealth and importance (read more on the blog). Gold disks decorate the edge of her collar while rubies and emeralds adorn her hair. She wears an extravagant necklace with a large cut diamond and luxurious pearl. The fashion suggests the portrait was made in the 1570s. It is possibly a representation of Camilla Martelli, mistress and then second wife of the Grand Duke of Tuscany Cosimo I de’ Medici.
June 9, 2020
Sunburst in the Riesengebirge
This painting captures a burst of sunlight over distant hills as blue sky dispels gathered storm clouds. The hut at top left indicates human presence within this vast landscape. Caspar David Friedrich based this scene on the Riesengebirge, a mountain range on the present-day border of the Czech Republic and Poland where Friedrich had taken a walking tour 25 years earlier. Distinct elements of this landscape held strong symbolism for Friedrich and his audience: the fir tree represented life and vitality; the dead tree, mortality; and the illuminated hills, an aspiration toward the promise of eternity.
June 8, 2020
This sculpture is both rough and elegant while radically simple and powerfully emotional. It evokes both the natural form of the stone from which it is carved and the living form it represents. John Flannagan was one of the first artists to practice “direct carving,” a reaction to the increasingly elaborate casting or modeling processes traditionally used to make sculpture. Flannagan would follow the shape, structure, color, and texture of a specific fieldstone to determine the sculpture he would make from it. As he wrote, “I would like my sculpture to appear as rocks, left quite untouched and natural, and . . . inevitable.”
June 7, 2020
Hues of gold, red, yellow, and silver shimmer across the undulating surface of Fading Cloth. Although it looks like a textile, the work is actually made from discarded liquor bottle tops, which were flattened and stitched together with copper wire. Through this manipulation of metal caps, El Anatsui transformed the mundane into something visually mesmerizing. These materials are encoded with meaning. Europeans traded textiles and liquor in exchange for gold and slaves in West Africa. Fading Cloth weaves together a range of political, historical, and visual references specific to this region, where Anatsui was born.
June 6, 2020
A vizier held the most powerful position in Egypt under the Pharaoh. Similar to a secretary of state, the vizier was in charge of all civil affairs. This figure’s rank of vizier is confirmed by the cord around his neck from which his official badge or seal would have been suspended. The seal would have been tucked into his kilt for safekeeping. Carved from anorthosite gneiss (also known as Chephren diorite, the material associated with the Old Kingdom pharoah Chephren), the stone for this statue was limited to representing pharaonic or royal figures and could be used only by the royal workshop. It is unknown why this figure is unfinished.
June 5, 2020
A Yup’ik artist from Alaska has gracefully manipulated wood and paint to show a powerful vision. In the central carving, an angalkuq (shaman) stares intently through two bentwood rings, which represent layers of the universe. As mediators between worlds, shamans have the ability to travel beyond the everyday realm. Feathers and wooden carvings of hands, feet, fish, and a bird radiate beyond the second, outermost ring. With hands and legs matching the tone of his face, the angalkuq seems to reach across the boundaries of the world. He touches that which we cannot see, the inner life of things.
June 4, 2020
You Can’t Lay Down Your Memories Chest of Drawers
This playful assemblage of mismatched drawers is piled in an asymmetrical configuration and bound together with an upholstery strap. The grouping offers an alternative to the traditional compact, upright chest form. All the drawers are salvaged scrap and each chest in this limited series is unique. In fact, brave owners can create their own compositions by stacking and rearranging the drawers at will.
June 3, 2020
The Little Mountain Goats
In this charming work by Franz Marc, two green goats float above a landscape of spiky mountains. Marc was a member of the Der Blaue Reiter (Blue Rider) expressionist artist group and was renowned for his paintings of animals. He found animals to be lovely and pure and represented that purity with prismatic forms painted in transparent layers of glowing colors. Marc’s death in World War I (1914–1918) shocked his fellow expressionists and effectively disbanded the Blue Rider group.
June 2, 2020
This voluptuous blossom, with its flawless petals and leaves, conveys the flower’s symbolic sensuality. In 1954, a curator described Martin Johnson Heade’s magnolia paintings as, “the fleshy whiteness of magnolia blossoms startlingly arrayed on sumptuous red velvet like odalisques [reclining nudes] on a couch.” Heade became fascinated with this flower in the 1880s when he moved to Florida. His magnolia paintings were sought after by wealthy tourists, who displayed them in their homes upon return.
June 1, 2020
Whistle in the Form of Two Human Figures
In this ceramic whistle, the figures of a man (left) and a woman (right) join together to make music. These two individuals share a single body, each contributing an arm and a leg, creating a balanced whole. The male and female halves are distinguished by their clothing, which differs according to fit and decoration. Their facial painting, which may designate their ethnic affiliations, is also reminiscent of textile patterns.
May 31, 2020
The size of this ram’s head helmet indicates that it was meant to be worn for ceremonial purposes rather than in actual battle. It was created by hammering a single sheet of bronze, which makes it extremely light and unsuitable as actual armor. Decoration was added using a series of common metalworking techniques such as repoussée, punching, tracing, and engraving. The ram’s head on top, whose horns, ears, and eyes have been restored, is mirrored by the attached ram’s head cheek pieces. The selection of the ram to adorn a military-style helmet is fitting since the animals have a double-layered skull which helps protect them from injury. Elaborate helmets such as this are quite rare.
May 30, 2020
Portrait of a Young Woman
Hear Expert Commentary
Speaker: Judith W. Mann, PhD
Curator of European Art to 1800
Saint Louis Art Museum
I’m looking at this lovely portrait of a young woman, a pastel on blue paper. It’s become a rather famous image. She’s really engaging and someone you’d certainly like to know. We know very little about her, unfortunately, and we’ve been trying through the years to figure out just who she is. For years it was thought she was this poet Phyllis Wheatley, who worked in London in the mid 18th-century. There is a famous portrait of Phyllis Wheatley where she seated at a desk and shown in profile and she too was a woman of color. But really, there’s very little similarity between the two.
There was also a well known young woman from the West Indies who came to England in the mid 18th-century and raised on and an estate there and then recorded in a portrait in 1779. Her name was Dido Belle, and she does look a bit like our sitter, but there’s really no other evidence to support that and most people don’t think that’s who she is.
Recently though, we’ve got some new information. We’ve been able to photograph and read accurately the watermark in the paper, an image imprinted in the surface of the paper, and it tells us that this paper was made by a paper maker in the Netherlands who started working in 1751. In addition, we’ve looked at the clothing our sitter wears and the headscarf in particular is something of a fashion that wasn’t worn in Europe but was worn in the Caribbean. So we take her to be a young woman from the Caribbean who made her way, probably to the port of Amsterdam, and then either she herself commissioned a pastel portrait, pastel was so popular in the 18th-century, or an artist was taken with her for many of the same reasons we find her so engaging and decided to make this lovely work.
This pastel depicts a young woman with her face turned slightly toward the viewer, revealing a warm expression. Her head is covered with a light‑colored wrap decorated with a sheer pattern. She wears a pair of small gold earrings, a pearl choker necklace, and a dress with an embellished scoop neckline.
Both the woman and the artist who portrayed her remain unidentified. A recent Google image search produced nearly 5.7 billion results with no clear answers to the artist’s and sitter’s identities. Useful clues may lie in the woman’s attire. Some scholars believe her head covering reveals Caribbean origins. This drawing’s blue paper contains a clue—a watermark is revealed when the sheet is held up to light. Watermarks contain information about when and where the paper was made. This one spells out E V Orspronk, a Dutch paper manufacturer active in the 18th century.
Who is the captivating young woman in this pastel? Hear Judith W. Mann, curator of European Art to 1800, discuss (above) the mystery of her possible identities, from Phillis Wheatley to Dido Belle, and what we have learned so far about the unknown subject of this portrait.
May 29, 2020
Pictorial Board and Dice Game
To play this sugoroku, a board game similar to western chutes and ladders, players begin in the rectangular box at the bottom. Players compete to reach the rectangular finishing point at the top, captioned “Conference of Commissioned Officers,” by rolling a die. The 20 places between start and finish take the form of circular images on a black ground that evoke magic lantern slides, a popular toy in Meiji period Japan (1868-1912). Each image is accompanied by a label containing a title and a key dictating where players should move next.
May 28, 2020
Wall Clock, from the Casa Milà, Barcelona, Spain
This clock is one of several similar versions made for the Casa Milà apartment building in Barcelona, Spain. Like the building’s undulating façade, the clock appears as a malleable mass, stretched downward by the pull of gravity. Its asymmetrical distortions create an illusion of movement: the clock could, in fact, be a commentary on time, and even on life itself.
For his Casa Milà apartment building, Antoni Gaudi designed furnishings, ceramic floor tiles, and wrought-iron window grilles in addition to clocks that complement his sculptural treatment of the building. Many of these forms were inspired by aquatic themes. Unlike some of his contemporaries, Gaudi did not copy nature but sought its essence.
May 27, 2020
This magnificent basin was used for washing, in conjunction with a pitcher. The teeming fish swimming around the bottom of the interior reflect its function, as the water would splash over them. The stately Arabic inscriptions encircling the exterior of the basin and its interior rim indicate it was created for a high-ranking officer of the Mamluk ruler al-Malik al-Nasir (ruled 1293–1341). The Mamluks ruled Egypt and Syria from 1250 to 1517. In 1322 they signed a peace treaty with the Mongols, opening the way to trade with China. Contact with China introduced new motifs, such as the lotus flowers in the roundels on this basin.
May 26, 2020
Christ Presented to the People (“The Ecce Homo”)
Silhouetted by a dark arch, the three main figures in the print from the Christian New Testament, Pontius Pilate (prefect of the Roman province of Judea), Jesus, and the thief Barabbas, stand on the podium before a large civic building. Pilate, wearing a turban, has already asked the crowd before him: “Which of the two do you want me to release to you?” The crowd shouts, “Barabbas!” Rembrandt captures the moment when Pilate, pointing towards Jesus, asks them the next question: “What then shall I do with Jesus who is called Christ?” The crowd shouts back, “Let him be crucified!”
Surrounded by an extraordinary architectural setting, soldiers, and the surge of the crowd below him, Jesus looks helpless and isolated. This is one of Rembrandt’s most celebrated prints because of its size, rarity, and complex composition. The work is also one of the few that Rembrandt did exclusively in drypoint, a process in which a sharp point is used to scratch a line directly into the copperplate.
May 25, 2020
Pegasus and Warrior (Courage)
This warrior and ancient Greek mythological horse Pegasus represent courage. Pegasus was the loyal, winged battle companion to gods and heroes. In this sculpture, the warrior’s sure control of Pegasus’ head contrasts with the horse’s opened wings, ready to take flight rather than remain earthbound.
The sculpture is a plaster cast, a scale working model, for one of four monumental sculptures created to flank the entrances to the Soldiers Memorial in downtown St. Louis. Though not completed until 1936, the memorial was proposed in 1919 to honor those soldiers who lost their lives in World War I (1914-1918). The four entrance sculptures—courage, vision, loyalty, and sacrifice—all done by Hancock, represent qualities found in soldiers and their families.
May 24, 2020
This vibrant, colorful work depicts a young, unidentified model that Pierre-Auguste Renoir painted at his studio in the Montmartre district of Paris. He used his characteristically feathery brushwork, particularly in his representation of the background floral wallpaper. The mild eroticism of the sitter’s gaze—the English painter Walter Richard Sickert later described this as a “saucy” portrait—is enhanced by the way in which she idly places her finger in her mouth.
May 23, 2020
Figurehead (pakoko or tete) from a fishing canoe
Appearing defiant with a thick protruding tongue, this tiki head was attached to the bow of a waka tete, or fishing canoe. Its aggressive face would have pointed outward, parting the sea with its powerful force. The curved and spiral patterns around the mouth likely represent moko, intricate tattoos that communicate personal history as well as tribal status. The eyes of the head were once inlaid with iridescent shells.
May 22, 2020
Head of Simone in a Green Bonnet with Wavy Brim (No. 2)
Mary Cassatt was celebrated during her lifetime as a painter of children, and often portrayed girls in frilly dresses with oversized hats. This pastel drawing depicts Simone, a young girl from the village where Cassatt lived, wearing a large, floppy bonnet. Cassatt skillfully used pastel to explore different textures, from the smoothness of Simone’s skin, to her light wisps of hair, to the soft velvety contours of the hat.
This work is part of a group of related pictures of young girls in large hats (learn more), including another pastel drawing called Head of Simone in a Green Bonnet with a Wavy Brim (No. 3), in the Davis Museum at Wellesley College (see image above). Despite the similarities in titles and the hats depicted, closer inspection reveals that the sitters are actually different girls: one with blonde hair and the other younger, with dark hair. Cassatt often selected the hats for her sitters, sometimes reusing a particular hat in multiple images, as may have been the case here.
May 21, 2020
Seated Figure of the Official of Earth (Di guan)
Poised to hold a now-missing sacred tablet, this larger-than-life bronze sculpture is from a set of identical deities that sat in a temple. The large size and fine quality of this work required that it be constructed from intersecting pieces like a big puzzle. But despite its great weight of over 2,000 pounds and its overwrought scale, this sculpture is finely proportioned and beautifully composed. Although seated in a formal manner, the figure is animated by the flow of its voluminous robes from shoulders to feet. The deity’s eyes, lips, and clothing retain touches of gold.
May 20, 2020
To Encircle Base Plate Hexagram, Right Angles Inverted
Embedded into the road between the Saint Louis Art Museum and Art Hill (see installation views above), this large circular sculpture is barely apparent at street level. The work is comprised of two identical steel semi-circular components—one upright, the other inverted. In each a horizontal metal plate is joined to a vertical outer band forming an L-shape in profile. On the upright half of the circle the plate is buried under the pavement, while on the inverted half the plate sits flush with the surface of the road.
The title of this sculpture both describes its form and suggests the goals it is intended to achieve: to encircle, contain, and define space. “Base Plate” refers to the enclosed pavement as if it were a plate of steel. “Hexagram” describes the six surfaces of the sculpture: the outside and inside of the outer band and the top and bottom of each of the two plates. “Right Angles Inverted” points to the positioning of the upright and inverted L-shaped bands.
Richard Serra’s first public artwork in the United States, this sculpture was originally installed in the Bronx, New York, from 1970 to 1972 (as depicted above in the photograph by Peter Moore). Serra meant for viewers to walk and drive over the work and, through this process, to become more aware of the street itself and the sculpture’s relationship to it.
May 19, 2020
This half armor was made for sporting combat on foot “at the barriers,” a friendly competition in which individuals or teams of armored contestants used swords and spear-like pikes to score points for hits delivered. The barriers was a waist-high fence that kept the fighters separated. Since the barriers protected the fighters below the waist, leg armor was unnecessary in these contests. The ceremonial and sporting aspects of the armor are accented by the overall decoration of gold crescents.
May 18, 2020
Landscape with a Horse
The golden, glowing sky sets the tone for this visionary scene. A horse, castle, and foliage emerge from the darkened, jewel-toned landscape, whose trees cast anxious silhouettes. Edward Middleton Manigault is known for his insistent experimentation. His works are remarkable for their decorative sense and imaginative, otherworldly spirit, as seen here.
Manigault later served as an ambulance driver in World War I (1914–1918), where he was exposed to mustard gas. In the years following his discharge, he began fasting as an attempt to “approach the spiritual plane and see colors not perceptible to the physical eye.”
May 17, 2020
Scratched from the blackened surface with a fine-pointed tool, the image of a bird spans the convex top of this copper. Many Northwest Coast groups made coppers for display, and an unattributed master artist worked this sheet of rolled copper in the typical manner: flaring its top, hammering the edges, and beating it over a form to achieve ridges at bottom. As representations of immense wealth, coppers appeared in elaborate performances at feasts.
The large size and painting on back (see image above) distinguish this copper. When compared to decoration on the front, the style of this painted bird indicates the labor of a second, more southerly artist. Coppers circulated between rivals and allies, their value increasing as they changed hands. The accumulation of imagery here likely relates to a long history of exchange, where a new owner added his own design to this copper.
May 16, 2020
Stairway at Auvers
The expressive, swirling lines of the foreground road move backward to the center of this composition. The road joins the base of a stairway on which an elderly man with a stick descends. Chestnut trees are in flower to the right and left, while two pairs of women walk along the road. Vincent van Gogh’s work is of a compact, almost claustrophobic density and the sky is barely seen. In one of his final letters, Van Gogh described Auvers as “of a grave beauty, the real countryside, characteristic, and picturesque.”
May 15, 2020
This ceramic two-humped Bactrian camel was likely part of a set of objects placed in the tomb of an important person to signify wealth and position in society. The hollow sculpture was made by pressing thin sheets of earthenware clay into reusable, fired ceramic molds. Before the clay had completely dried, the sections were removed from the molds and details were incised and stamped onto them. Once the clay pieces were dry enough to support their own weight, they were joined together and attached to a flat base. The seams were trimmed, smoothed, and covered over with clay in preparation for glazing
Glazes are a mixture of tiny crystals and ground minerals, which are added to create different colors. Tang dynasty tomb objects often have multicolored lead-fluxed glazes known as “three-color” (sancai) glaze, as in the vivid amber, straw, and green colors covering this camel. To apply the glaze, the object was first covered with a white slip (clay thinned with water). The glazes were then brushed, poured, or splashed over the piece and allowed to drip down before firing. When fired, the glazes melted into a hard, glasslike finish. Tang artists used lead glazes to create rich, smooth surfaces and added coloring oxides to create pure, bright colors.
May 14, 2020
Yellow blossoms surround the top of this vase, while simplified green stems divide the lower body. The areas in between were pierced, then filled with a blue translucent glaze. Adelaide Robineau was known for exacting technical work, often carving into the vessel walls to achieve extraordinary thinness and translucency.
May 13, 2020
Artemis, goddess of the hunt, is identifiable here by the quiver strap across her chest. The way the dress clings to her body, often called “wet drapery,” while simultaneously billowing around the figure creates an exaggerated sense of movement that is a signature element of Hellenistic sculpture. Known for her chastity and modesty, Artemis cannot escape the dictates of the style and its body-conscious modeling.
May 12, 2020
The Besieged Elephant
The elephant at the center of this oversize print bears the weight of an entire army. Dozens of helmeted soldiers armed with crossbows, swords, and projectiles are ensconced in a fantastical turreted structure fastened atop his back (read excerpt below). Even the elephant has gone on the defensive and seized an opponent forcefully in his massive trunk. The print’s overarching message seems to warn mankind to beware of the dangers of extreme aggression.
Although an inscription on the print identifies Hieronymus Bosch as its “inventor,” no such composition by the celebrated Netherlandish painter survives. Rather, this print’s inspiration came from a now-rare engraving by Bosch’s contemporary, Alart du Hameel (view comparative image above). Hameel may well have adapted imagery from Bosch’s devilish inventions. Created decades later, this print was one of many that reinterpreted and updated Boschian themes for a new generation. In one such update, the many animals fighting alongside soldiers in the earlier version by Hameel are absent here, and all focus turns to the challenges of humanity.
Excerpt from the Museum publication Beyond Bosch: The Afterlife of a Renaissance Master in Print:
The image of the battle elephant goes back to antiquity and remained a popular subject throughout the Middle Ages and into the 16th century. The description of elephants armed for battle derives from the ancient Greek historian Diodorus Siculus whose Library of History describes a battle undertaken by Alexander the Great during his campaign in India. The animals were outfitted by the enemy army with towers on their backs, such that together they looked like a giant city, and the infantry was placed on the ground between them. Siculus describes how, when the fighting began, the elephants trampled some of Alexander’s soldiers and lifted up others with their trunks to dash them against the ground. Ultimately, however, Alexander’s army weakened the animals with their spears, and the elephants were put into disarray.
Marisa Bass, “The Besieged Elephant,” in: Marisa Bass and Elizabeth Wyckoff, Beyond Bosch: The Afterlife of a Renaissance Master in Print (St. Louis: Saint Louis Art Museum, 2015), cat. 15, 141-142.
May 11, 2020
Migrant Mother, Nipomo, CA
This photograph, taken in 1936 in the central valley of California, became a symbol of the plight of migrant farm workers during America’s Great Depression. The image taps into both the anguish and perseverance of a dispossessed mother, trying to care for her children in a time of crisis. Navigating between the artistic and the journalistic, Dorothea Lange excelled at distilling complex situations into powerful and empathetic black-and-white images with the hopes of motivating social and economic reform.
Lange ran a successful portrait studio in San Francisco beginning in 1919, but with the onset of the Great Depression, she was moved to photograph the unemployed and homeless that she saw standing in breadlines. These works led her to be hired by the federal Farm Security Administration, and she crisscrossed the western and midwestern United States by automobile to record the struggles of those most affected by the Depression (read more).
May 10, 2020
A Young Mother
Although there is a convincing sense of the female body in this sculpture, the abundant fabric serves to soften the form emotionally. The mother’s facial features are simplified, but her tender gaze upon her child conveys the intimacy of their relationship. Bessie Potter Vonnoh was well known for her small bronze sculptures of everyday subjects. A Young Mother is considered one of the most sensitive studies of the mother and child theme in American sculpture.
May 9, 2020
Album, or friendship, quilts are among the most beautiful and sophisticated American quilts produced in the 19th century. This style of quilt was made in Baltimore between 1846 and 1852. They were stitched by groups of women to commemorate special events, to honor a prominent community member, or to remember someone relocating in this period of westward expansion.
This quilt was made as a tribute to Elizabeth Morrison by a group of Methodist church women. It is inscribed, “Presented to E Morrison By Ladies of Baltimore, MD.,” and has eight signatures. Two other inscriptions begin with the words “Friendship’s Offering” and “Friendship’s Gift.” An additional message offers an insight into political events of the time: “From one of the Rough & Ready To the Worthy President Mary Ann Hudgins, 1848.” U.S. Army General Zachary Taylor, who became the nation’s 12th president in 1849, was known to his troops as “Old Rough and Ready.”
May 8, 2020
Wrapper (adire eleko)
Adire eleko refers to hand-painted designs typically applied by women, as seen on this wrapper. Adire is the name for any indigo resist-dyed Yoruba cloth produced through a variety of techniques such as tying, knotting, binding, stitching, freehand painting, or stenciling. The artist painted these motifs on commercially-produced cloth using cassava starch paste as the resist material, dyed the cloth in an indigo bath, then washed away the starch. The central double-foliate motif is identified as the Olokun pattern, named after the Yoruba goddess of the sea and of wealth.
Both women and men wore adire wrappers as everyday dressing cloth until the mid-20th century, after which multi-colored factory-produced fabrics became more fashionable. Contemporary women artists have revived adire in traditions-based as well as inventive designs and styles.
May 7, 2020
Judith and Holofernes
The biblical heroine Judith’s strong arms and angled shoulders create lively diagonal lines that enhance her exaggerated musculature. Judith came to the rescue when General Holofernes and the Assyrian army laid siege to her city of Bethulia. Boldly infiltrating the Assyrian camp, Judith dined with Holofernes and, once he was drunk, she beheaded him with the help of her maid Abra. Vasari portrayed Judith as a physically powerful woman, a visible indication of her inner courage.
May 6, 2020
As the title indicates, this work relates to the color spectrum. Ellsworth Kelly, however, questions the predictability of the standard red to violet progression, instead offering a passage that begins with one shade of yellow and ends with another.
The search for specific color is central in Kelly’s art. He once explained, “It’s very difficult to do a spectrum because each color has to be the right red, the right purple, and they have to blend together.” Here, the artist has joined 13 individually painted canvases producing a work almost 23 feet long. Through this painting, Kelly has both reinvented the early European medieval tradition of the polyptych (joined multi-panel painting) and challenged the modern convention of the single canvas.
May 5, 2020
The traces of black and blue pigment seen on the headdress and skirt of this extremely rare wood sculpture are indicative of the Aztec goddess of water known as Chalchihuitlicue. The name means “she of the precious jade skirt.” For the Aztec and other Mesoamerican civilizations, jade and other greenstones symbolized the life-giving power of water. Chalchihuitlicue presided over aquatic rituals, particularly in late spring; the plant remains found in the round disc over her chest may be evidence of these rites.
Although the stiff pose is typical of Aztec art, the figure’s face is finely modeled. This suggests a dynamic tradition of wood carving that is now almost completely unknown, as many fragile wooden sculptures were either destroyed during the 16th-century Spanish invasion or have decayed through the centuries.
May 4, 2020
Prunus Vase (maebyeong)
This bottle is beautifully formed with the classic round shoulder that gradually swells from the narrow, splayed base. The constricted neck is surmounted by a shallow, incurved, and thin lip. Although the carved decoration is subtle, it enhances the shape, drawing attention to the curve of the shoulder with a four-trefoil cloud collar radiating from the neck. The decorative collar is infilled with leafy stems within a double-line conforming border.
Four large incised floral sprays of alternating lotus and peony on thick stems are incised on the sides of the vessel. Upright overlapping leaves encircle the base above a hastily carved zigzag band. The smooth celadon glaze is a bluish-tinged pale sea-green color with an overall crackle and covers the flat base within the unglazed foot rim where the gray stoneware body is visible.
May 3, 2020
To create this vast, charred landscape, Anselm Kiefer combined paint with the unlikely materials of lead, copper, and straw. Blackened furrows extend toward a distant horizon while a rusty ice skate and a porcelain shard, both placed in the foreground, emphasize the surface of the painting.
In this ravaged vista, Kiefer merges ancient mythology with the realities of modern technology. The 14 rods at the center of the composition allude to the Egyptian myth of Osiris, a god who was torn into 14 pieces before being reassembled by his sister-wife, Isis. Burning Rods also refers to fuel rods used in nuclear power plants, such as the one at Chernobyl that catastrophically failed in 1986. The monumental size and imposing physical bulk of this work are matched by Kiefer’s ambition to address the profound issues of death, destruction, and renewal that continually confront humanity.
May 2, 2020
Martingales, like the one seen here, hang from a horse’s neck and cover its chest. Among the Native Americans living on the Plains, horses were a source of both honor and currency. The best horses were decorated for special occasions like parades and celebrations, a tradition that continues to this day among the Apsáalooke (Crow) in south-central Montana.
May 1, 2020
Laylá visits Majnūn in the Wilderness
This miniature watercolor illustrates a scene from the epic Persian poem Laylá and Majnūn, a poem of 12th-century romance and forbidden love. Since these two star-crossed lovers were forced apart by their families, the heartbroken hero, Majnūn, retreated to the wilderness. There, he lived a strict life of an ascetic, while his beloved Laylá was forced to marry another. In this painting, Laylá has come to visit and comfort Majnūn.
The scene is dark and moody, reflecting the separation and suffering endured by the lovers. Laylá is shown richly dressed and in the worldly company of handmaidens and servants. Separated from her by a small stream, the lonely Majnūn is dressed in only a loincloth and befriended by a lowly hound. The spiritual bond that unites the lovers is revealed in the pairing of beasts and fowl, animals that accompany and protect Majnūn in his reclusive life.
April 30, 2020
This work represents three horses positioned for a relay hunt, in which riders would intermittently exchange their exhausted animals for rested relief horses. The artist precisely depicted the horses’ anatomy as well as the sheen of their coats in brown, white, and gray. Rosa Bonheur was known for her careful study of animals, and she kept horses, deer, dogs, and even a lioness on the grounds of her château. She was a pioneering feminist who sometimes disregarded convention by wearing men’s clothes and smoking cigarettes.
April 29, 2020
This window is one of a pair (view other panel above) created for the redesign of the Frederick Lothrop Ames house in Boston. The windows contain John La Farge’s revolutionary use of opalescent glass, significant because of the effects this “glowing white glass” had on light, color, and depth. The asymmetrical compositions and ornate floral patterns seen in these windows were inspired by La Farge’s paintings and his enthusiasm for Japanese art.
La Farge was an important painter, muralist, and decorator who shifted his interests to the artistic possibilities of glass. His innovation lies in the way he exploited the characteristics of glass itself, manipulating, casting, and layering it to create myriad hues, textures, and depth, eliminating the traditional need for painted details.
April 28, 2020
In this sculpture, the satyr Pan reclines on a rocky base amid grape clusters and vines. His left hand clutches a goatskin, called a nebris, which he wears around his neck. Such details (view above), together with a small salamander carved amid the rocks, evoke a rustic scene befitting Pan—the half goat-half human ancient Greek god of the woods, fields, and flocks known for his lecherous pursuits.
The reed pipe, or syrinx, in Pan’s right hand is an allusion to the maiden Syrinx, who was changed into a patch of reeds to escape the satyr’s advances. Francesco da Sangallo carved this sculpture from a recycled piece of ancient marble and it once served as a fountain; its water spout is still visible at the mouth of the sack above his right arm.
April 27, 2020
A visual symphony of layered colors and shapes, Faux Pas represents Robert Blackburn’s gestural mode of abstract art. Blackburn developed this approach, which he also applied to his printmaking, following a year of study in Europe on a John Hay Whitney Traveling Fellowship in 1953. A devoted advocate of the medium, he opened the Robert Blackburn Printmaking Workshop in New York in 1948.
April 26, 2020
Covered Wine Vessel (fang lei)
The sharp hooks, spurs, and spikes bristling from the body of this extraordinary sacrificial bronze give a sculptural force to its impressive size and architectonic structure. The vessel is further ornamented with taotie (zoomorphic masks) and low-relief dragons in distinct registers arranged in a highly symmetrical decorative order.
The horizontal orientation of the ornamental bands achieves a measured, visual balance that gives the work a stateliness to complement its visually aggressive character. The body of this wine vessel is distinguished by an unusual double taotie on each side (see other views). A very rare inscription of a single character may relate to the royal grant of land to a noble.
April 25, 2020
The Land of Evangeline
Cypress trees draped with moss frame this view of a young woman, Evangeline (see detail above), resting during her search for her missing fiancé. This painting depicts a scene from Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s epic poem “Evangeline, A Tale of Acadie” from 1847.
During the Civil War, artist Joseph Meeker joined the Union Navy and served on a gunboat that patrolled the Mississippi River Delta. There, he became fascinated by the beauty of the bayous, a subject he favored in the postwar paintings he created in St. Louis.
April 24, 2020
This contemplative woman, Augustine Roulin, was a local postman’s wife in Arles, in the south of France. Paul Gauguin focused on her ruddy complexion and reddish-brown hair in this portrait. Gauguin painted areas of flat, abstracted color and the sitter’s form is strongly outlined in Prussian blue, while a schematic version of one of the artist’s own pictures, Blue Trees, is visible on the wall behind. Gauguin produced this portrait during a tempestuous two months spent in the company of Vincent van Gogh at Arles.
April 23, 2020
Lords John and Bernard Stuart
Lords John Stuart (1621–1644) and Bernard Stuart (1623–1645), depicted here, died fighting for the Royalists against the Parliamentarians during the English Civil War, 1642–1651. They were memorialized in a famous painting by the Flemish painter Anthony van Dyck (1599–1641) (view above). Like many English painters of his day, Thomas Gainsborough was a great admirer of Van Dyck. In copying Van Dyck’s portrait of the Stuart brothers, Gainsborough undoubtedly admired the earlier artist’s brilliance in handling the two-figured composition, a far more challenging task than painting a single figure or a group of three. Like Van Dyck, Gainsborough echoed the bent right elbow of Lord John with the bent knee of his brother. Both artists also varied the height and orientation of the two young men to make a pleasing and graceful composition.
April 22, 2020
Striding Male Figure
Wooden statues from Egypt’s Old Kingdom (2686–2160 BC) were often damaged by the natural conditions of rot and insects as well as the wanton destruction wrought by tomb robbers. This fortunate survivor probably represents a nobleman or an official. Striding forward with assurance, he grasps the loose end of his kilt and pulls it aside in an elegant flourish that may represent a gesture of adoration or supplication.
This delicate figure is remarkable for the subtle modeling of the body beneath the pleated skirt, the careful details in the carving of the fingernails, and the distinctive inlaid nipples of ebony (see details). Wooden sculptures of the deceased, like this one, were placed in various locations within tombs and in varying numbers, depending on the traditions that were popular during different Old Kingdom dynasties.
April 21, 2020
In this vibrant watercolor of a sunset, Anselm Kiefer refers to the ancient Roman Emperor Heliogabal, who was born in Syria. Kiefer painted the emperor’s name between the sun’s rays and connected the seemingly benign sunset to a historic individual.
Heliogabal imposed, among other things, the worship of the sun god Baal as the state religion. The emperor’s reign was short lived from AD 218–222: the imperial family ordered his death by drowning at the age of 18. This sunset not only symbolizes Heliogabal’s murder and the end of his revolution but it also alludes to the fleeting authority of emperors and other leaders.
April 20, 2020
Treasure Box (wakahuia)
Lavishly carved, the rich and fluid relief sculpture adorning this lidded box reveals male and female ancestral figures. On the base, shown to the right of the lid, two male figures flank a female figure at center. Their heads extend from either end of the container to form knobs, which allowed the box to hang from the rafters of a Maori home. Household residents typically viewed the boxes from below (see multiple views).
Created primarily to hold the white-tipped black feathers of the now-extinct huia bird, these boxes also stored personal adornments made of materials such as wood, bone, greenstone, and whale ivory. Although a container for taonga (treasures), a wakahuia such as this was itself a cherished object.
April 19, 2020
Grey Space (distractor)
Brightly colored geometric forms float across this canvas, propelling dynamic motion while heightening the illusion of vast space. The artist produced such effects of constant activity and endless expansion by laboriously applying multiple layers of pigment, alternating between ink and acrylic. Through her characteristic use of drawing, the artist built up the surface, mining imagery from maps, diagrams, architectural blueprints, and corporate logos. The result is a visual collision of detailed linearity with bold color, offering the spectator distinct modes of viewing–from up close and from afar.
April 18, 2020
Circus Rider (recto), Dancers with Castanets (verso)
A rearing horse and rider dominate the center of this canvas. A clown in white makeup and red cap hurries by amidst green and yellow stage lights. The ringmaster stands at bottom right while the viewer is positioned as a member of the audience behind a row of fellow circus-goers. Ernst Ludwig Kirchner was attracted to the bohemian atmosphere found at the circus. In this flattened and compacted composition, he evoked the thrilling energy and vitality of the circus arena.
April 17, 2020
The Country School
Students sit, some attentive and some distracted, their benches and desks worn smooth with use. Fresh flowers grace the teacher’s desk, a few wilted blooms scatter on the floor, and a green hill beckons from outside. A gentle sunshine unifies all these details. Every former schoolchild can relate to these students’ struggle to study despite the lure of sunshine, spring grass, and outdoor play. Such closely observed realism was natural to Winslow Homer, whose career began as an illustrator documenting daily life with troops in the Civil War (1861–1865).
This painting participates in both the nostalgia for one-room schoolhouses—fast disappearing after the war—and the arrival of a modern, post-war world. Young women, with little hope of marriage given the deaths of so many young men, began to fill teaching and manufacturing positions.
April 16, 2020
The Three Trees
Three trees at the center of this composition draw the viewer’s eye as a wealth of activity unfolds around them. A bird in flight bursts out of the tree at left, and wagons, farmers, and livestock dot the low-lying fields in the middle ground. Closer at hand, a man and woman fish quietly on one side of a pond. Deeply buried in the foliage along the opposite bank a pair of lovers, almost invisible to the naked eye, flirt in the darkness.
Rembrandt van Rijn explored and celebrated the countryside of his native Netherlands. The Three Trees is the most elaborate of his landscape prints, rivaling the status of a painting with its ambitious composition and virtuoso execution.
April 15, 2020
Pheasant and Pine
The pictorial clarity and crisp, clean style of this shimmering screen contrast with its dark, nighttime theme. High among the golden clouds is a tarnished silver moon, casting its frail light on a late winter scene of pink, blossoming plum flowers and a snow-laden pine. A large, male pheasant with a long, ornamental tail roosts on the trunk while four bush warblers, known for their first song of spring, perch on a bough. Just above them are clusters of soft, gold-streaked pine needles. The splendor of the painting is enhanced by the low relief of a brushwood fence in gold leaf. This fence is balanced by the swirling eddies of an azurite blue stream and a low bank of malachite green. The screen’s spare, abstract style was a particular contribution of Kanō Kōi to Japanese painting.
April 14, 2020
Woman in Turkish Dress
Loose, yet assured brushwork, seen in gold edging along the shoulders, animates this painting of an unknown woman wearing Turkish clothing. Such exotic dress was popular in London throughout the 18th century, and Angelica Kauffmann painted several particularly engaging versions of garments that were based on clothing worn in the Ottoman Empire. For this portrait the artist depicted a loose gown trimmed in white lace (gömlek), a more fitted long-sleeved salmon-colored garment with buttons down the front (yelek), and an outer long coat edged in lace and fashioned from plum-colored velvet (entari). Dated on the back of the canvas in what appears to be the artist’s own hand, this painting may have served as an advertisement to convince women in London society to have their portraits painted in Turkish dress.
April 13, 2020
Portrait of a Woman
Rounded features, a delicate lace bodice with flowers, and soft wavy hair communicate both the taste and beauty of the sitter, and Edmonia Lewis’s skill as a sculptor. The sitter may be Antoinette Rutgers Thomas, as a similarly sized portrait of her husband, James Peck Thomas, was completely by Lewis in 1874 (Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin, Ohio). Antoinette was born into one of the wealthiest free black families in St. Louis, and her husband, who moved to the city in 1857, increased that wealth through real estate. Lewis and the Thomases all had mixed-race heritage—Lewis had African and Native American parentage—and she was drawn to subjects that addressed race and gender.
In 1867, Lewis moved to Rome. She worked successfully among the small group of American female sculptors who found greater renown and patronage there than they could in their own country.
April 12, 2020
Its hind legs tensed like a coiled spring and its long ears pulled back ready for flight, this black -tailed hare expresses the dynamism so prized in the work of John James Audubon. This drawing reveals critical aspects of Audubon’s working methods. Known for his exhaustive travels, he was famed for his exacting attention to detail and his practice of depicting animals in their native habitats.
In this case, the aging Audubon did not see the animal in the field but relied instead on memory, second-hand accounts, and preliminary sketches made by his son. The colors and textures were drawn from pelts. This may account for the slightly unnatural appearance of the animal, particularly in the awkward separation of its toes.
April 11, 2020
Large Fragmentary Ushak “Quatrefoil” Carpet
Hear Expert Commentary
Speaker: Walter B. Denny, PhD
University Distinguished Scholar | Islamic, Museum Studies, Orientalism
University of Massachusetts Amherst
The Ballard four-lobed Ushak carpet, isn’t a complete carpet. It’s about two-thirds of the original. We don’t know why it was cut down; probably to fit in somebody’s living room in a previous century. It remains in every expert’s imagination as the quintessential example of an Ushak carpet in all of the glory of its original pile condition. The coloration and texture are very unusual and the design itself is virtually unique in Ushak carpets. All of this makes this particular carpet, not only one-of-a-kind, but also a window into a kind of class of carpets that has survived in numerous examples down into our own time, but almost never in the condition that we see in this fabulous object. It’s a tribute to Ballard that in a time where other collectors might have turned up their noses at the fact that the carpet was fragmentary (was not complete) that he realized that here was something unique in the world—that nobody else had. And now, of course, we have it in St. Louis.
This carpet features striking blue quatrefoil, or four-lobed, medallions on a brilliant red central field, elements characteristic of Ushak weaving. Woven with seven colors of wool, this is the only known carpet to bear this particular type of quatrefoil design. Curving arabesque forms and floral motifs fill the remaining spaces. The town of Ushak in western Anatolia (present-day Turkey) has been known for its carpet weaving since the 15th century.
This carpet is one of 110 textiles donated to the Museum from the collection of St. Louisian James F. Ballard. Originally about 16 feet in length, this carpet was cut down prior to Ballard’s purchase. Ballard is recognized as one of the most significant American carpet collectors of the early 20th century.
April 10, 2020
Christ Shown to the People (Ecce Homo)
By the glow of blazing torchlight, Pontius Pilate, the Roman ruler of Judea, presents Jesus to an unseen crowd who will decide his fate. Pilate’s extravagant fur-lined cloak and the young page’s opulent jewelry contrast with the nearly naked Jesus. The distinction between simplicity and splendor underscores the poignancy of the humiliation Jesus endured.
Evidenced by the sketchy application of paint in the upper left, this work was unfinished at Titian’s death. During his long life, Titian had become one of the most celebrated artists of his day, recognized and sought after by popes and secular rulers. Qualities such as the assured, powerful brushwork, sensitive modeling, subdued palette, and emotional depth characterize Titian’s late style.