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Factories at Clichy

Vincent van Gogh, Dutch, 1853–1890
summer 1887
Oil on canvas
Made in
Asnières-sur-Seine, Île-de-France, Western Europe, France, Europe
Clichy, Île-de-France, Western Europe, France, Europe
Current Location
On View, Gallery 218
21 1/8 x 28 5/8 in. (53.7 x 72.7 cm)
framed: 32 x 39 7/8 in. (81.3 x 101.3 cm)
Credit Line
Funds given by Mrs. Mark C. Steinberg by exchange
Public Domain
Object Number
Vincent van Gogh depicted an expanse of factories billowing smoke into the air in the gritty, industrial suburb of Clichy, northwest of Paris. The scene is divided into three horizontal bands of fields, factories, and sky, while in the middle distance, two tiny figures—perhaps lovers—are visible in the field. Van Gogh’s ordered system of brushwork reflects his awareness of the recent pointillist experiments of French painter Georges Seurat.
- 1894
Père Tanguy, Paris, France

In Père Tanguy sale at Hôtel Drouot, Paris, France, lot no. 61 [1]

Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, Paris, France [2]

E. Blot Gallery, Paris, France

by 1901 -
Maurice Fabre, Paris, France [3]

- 1910/1911
Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, Paris, France [4]

1911 -
Gustav Robinow, Richmond Hill, Surrey, England, purchased from Galerie Bernheim-Jeune [5]

by 1914 - 1928
Paul M. Robinow (1865-1922) and Emily Robinow, Hamburg, Germany [6]

In Robinow Sale, Berlin, Germany, October 30, 1928, lot no. 58 [7]

by 1930 - 1957
Wilhelm Weinberg (d.1957), Amsterdam, The Netherlands; later Scarsdale, NY, USA [8]

1957/07/10 - 1959
M. Knoedler & Co., New York, NY, purchased at sale of the collection of the late Wilhelm Weinberg, Sotheby's, London, July 10, 1957, lot no. 47 [9]

1959/07/31 -
Saint Louis Art Museum, purchased from M. Knoedler & Co. [10]

The main source for this provenance is De la Faille's catalog raisonné, the 1970 revised edition, cat. no. 317 [Faille, J.-B. de la. "The Works of Vincent van Gogh: His Paintings and Drawings." Amsterdam, Meulenhoff International, 1970]. Exceptions and other supporting documents are noted.

[1] Per sale catalog ["Catalogue de Tableaux Modernes, Pastels, Gravures, Sculpture." Paris: Hôtel Drouot, 1894]. Sold for 100 francs according to the 1957 Weinberg sale catalog (see note [9]).

[2] Provenance in 1957 Weinberg sale (see note [9]) lists Bernheim-Jeune after Père Tanguy and before E. Blot. The Getty has followed suit and included it in their Provenance of Paintings Index. De la Faille, 1970, however, does not include it.

[3] Listed as owner in an exhibition from March 15-31, 1901 at Galerie Bernheime-Jeune ["Exposition d'Oeuvres de Vincent van Gogh." Paris: Bernheim-Jeune, 1901, cat. no. 27].

[4] Listed as lent by Bernheim-Jeune in the exhibition catalog for "Manet and the Post-Impressionists" at Grafton Galleries, London, Nov. 8, 1910 - Jan. 15, 1911 ["Manet and the Post-Impressionists." London: Ballantyne, 1910]. The Getty, however, does not list this in their Provenance of Paintings Index.

[5] According to a letter dated January 16, 1911 from Gustav Robinow to Johanna van Gogh-Bonger in the Van Gogh Museum Archives, Robinow saw this painting at the exhibition in 1910/1911 at the Grafton Gallery, London, and was going to buy it [copy in SLAM document files]. The relationship between Gustav Robinow and the next owner, Paul M. Robinow is not clear, but he is presumably a relative.

[6] Paul M. Robinow is listed as owner in the exhibition catalog "Vincent van Gogh, Zehnte Ausstellung" at Paul Cassirer, Berlin, 1914 ["Vincent van Gogh, 30. März 1853-29. Juli 1890: zehnte Ausstellung, Mai-Juni 1914." Berlin: P. Cassirer, 1914, cat. no. 24].

Research supplied by the organizers of the exhibition "Van Gogh and Britain: Pioneer Collectors," indicates that Paul M. Robinow acquired the work from Gustav Robinow in 1911, and his wife Emily Robinow acquired it upon Paul's death in 1922 [letter from Michael Clarke and Richard Gray dated April 4, 2003, SLAM document files]. No supporting documentation was provided.

[7] It is not known who purchased the painting. See the sale catalog ["Sammlung Dr. Alfred Ganz St. Niklausen bei Luzern aus Berliner und anderem Privatbesitz aus dem Nachlass Paul M. Robinow, Hamburg." Berlin: Paul Cassirer and Hugo Helbing, 1928].

[8] Listed as belonging to Weinberg in the catalog for an exhibition at the Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, Sept. 6 - Nov. 2, 1930 ["Stedelijke tentoonstelling Vincent van Gogh en zijn tijdgenooten." Amsterdam: Stedelijk Museum, 1930, cat. no. 16]. Listed as belonging to Weinberg in a 1947 publication [Goldscheider, Ludwig and Wilhelm Uhde. "Vincent van Gogh." Oxford: Phaidon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1947]. Wilhelm Weinberg had a substantial art collection which included works by van Gogh, Renoir, Gauguin, Toulouse-Lautrec, Utrillo, and Manet. Mr. Weinberg lived in Amsterdam where he was a banker until 1940. He died on February 14, 1957 in Scarsdale, NY. "The Factories at Asnieres" is mentioned in Mr. Weinberg's obituary in the New York Times ["New York Times," February 15, 1957].

[9] Per Getty Provenance Index. Also see the sale catalog ["Catalogue of the Highly Important Collection of Nineteenth Century and Modern Paintings and Bronzes, the Property of the late Wilhelm Weinberg of Scarsdale, New York." New York: Sotheby & Co., 1957].

[10] Per bill of sale [SLAM document files]. Minutes of the Administrative Board of Control and the Advisory Committee of the City Art Museum, December 11, 1958.
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